ABYC Wiring Rules.

The same physics as were in force when ABYC Wiring Rules were written are still true today.
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The complete ABYC Wiring Rules:

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E-11 AC and DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ON BOATS

Table of Contents

11.1. PURPOSE  ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1

11.2. SCOPE      …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

11.3. REFERENCED ORGANIZATIONS           ……………………………………… 1

11.4. DEFINITIONS………………………………………………………………………………… 1

11.5. REQUIREMENTS ………………………………………………………………………….. 3

11.6. SYSTEM VOLTAGE………………………………………………………………………. 6

11.7. POWER SOURCE………………………………………………………………………….. 6

11.8. SHORE POWER POLARITY DEVICES……………………………………….. 21

11.9. ISOLATION OF GALVANIC CURRENTS…………………………………….. 21

11.10. LOAD CALCULATIONS…………………………………………………………….. 22

11.11. PANELBOARD ………………………………………………………………………….. 24

11.12. OVERCURRENT PROTECTION…………………………………………………. 24

11.13. GROUND FAULT PROTECTION………………………………………………… 27

11.14. SWITCHES………………………………………………………………………………… 28

11.15. PLUGS AND RECEPTACLES……………………………………………………. 28

11.16. SYSTEM WIRING ……………………………………………………………………… 29

11.17. APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT …………………………………………….. 33

11.18. DC GROUNDING AND BONDING …………………………………………… 34

 

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E-11 AC and DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ON BOATS

Based on ABYC’s assessment of the existing technology, and the problems associated with achieving the goals of this standard, ABYC recommends compliance with this standard for all systems and associated equipment manufactured and/or installed after July 31, 2004.

11.1. PURPOSE

These standards are guides for the design, construction, and installation of direct current (DC) electrical systems on boats and of alternating current(AC) electrical systems on boats.

NOTE: The United States Coast Guard has promulgated mandatory requirements for electrical systems in Title 33, CFR 183 Subpart I, Section 183. Refer to the CFR for complete, current federal requirements.

11.2. SCOPE

These standards apply: 11.2.1. to direct current (DC) electrical systems on boats that operate at potentials of 50 volts or less and,

EXCEPTION: Any wire that is part of an outboard engine assembly and does not extend inside the boat.

11.2.2. to boat alternating current (AC) electrical systems operating at frequencies of 50 or 60 hertz and less than 300 volts including shore powered systems up to the point of connection to the shore outlet and including the shore power cable.

11.3. REFERENCED ORGANIZATIONS

ABYC – American Boat & Yacht Council, Inc., 3069,


Solomon’s Island Road, Edgewater, MD 21037-1416.

Phone: 410-956-1050, Fax: 410-956-2737. Web site:www.abycinc.org


CFR – Code Of Federal Regulations and other government publications. Obtain from the Superintendent Of Documents, United States Government Information, POB 371 954, Pittsburgh,

PA 15250-7954 202-512-1800 or FAX 202-512-

  1. Web site: www.access.gpo.gov An excerpted edition of the CFR is also available from ABYC, Inc.


NEMA – National Electrical Manufacturer’s

Association, 1300 North 17th St, Suite 1847, Rosslyn, VA 22209. Phone: 703-841-3200, Fax: 703-841-5900.

Web site: www.nema.org


NFPA – National Fire Protection Association, One Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269-9101. Phone: 617-770-3000. Fax: 617-770-0700. Web-site: www.nfpa.org


SAE – Society of Automotive Engineers, 400

Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096

Phone: 724-776-4841. Fax: 724-776-5760. web site:

www.sae.org


USCG – United States Coast Guard, USCG

Headquarters, Washington, DC, 25093-0001. Coast Guard Infoline: (800)-368-5647. Web site:

www.uscgboating.org.


UL – Underwriters Laboratories Marine Department, POB 13995, 12 Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Phone: 919-549-1400. Fax: 919- 547-6000. Web site: www.ul.com

11.4. DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this standard, the following definitions apply.

AC grounded conductor – A current carrying conductor that is intentionally maintained at ground

potential.

NOTE: This may be referred to as the neutral (white) conductor in AC electrical systems. AC grounding conductor (green or green with a yellow stripe) – A conductor, not normally carrying current, used to connect the metallic non-current carrying parts of AC electrical equipment to the AC grounding bus, engine negative terminal, or its bus, and to the source ground.

NOTE: The source may be the shore AC power, an inverter, an isolation transformer or a generator. Battery cold cranking performance rating (0oF) – The discharge load in amperes that a battery at 17.8°C (0°F) can deliver for 30 seconds, and maintain a voltage of 1.2 volts per cell or higher, e.g., 7.2 volts for a 12 volt battery.

Battery reserve capacity – The number of minutes a new fully charged battery at 26.7°C (80°F) can be continuously discharged at 25 amperes, and maintain a voltage of 1.75 volts or higher per cell, e.g., 10.5 volts for a 12 volt battery.

DC grounded conductor – A current carrying conductor connected to the side of the power source

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Definitions – Continued that is intentionally maintained at boat ground potential.


DC grounding conductor – A normally non-current carrying conductor used to connect metallic noncurrent carrying parts of direct current devices to the engine negative terminal, or its bus, for the purpose of minimizing stray current corrosion.


Double insulation system – An insulation system comprised of basic insulation and supplementary insulation, with the two insulations physically separated and so arranged that they are not simultaneously subjected to the same deteriorating influences, e.g., temperature, contaminants, and the like, to the same degree.


Engine negative terminal – The point on the engine at which the negative battery cable is connected.


Equipment housing – The outside shell of equipment supplied by the manufacturer of the device, or a box, shell, or enclosure provided by the equipment installer. This shell provides personnel protection from electrical hazards, burns, rotating machinery, sharp edges, and provides protection to the device from mechanical damage or weather.


Galvanic isolator – A device installed in series with the (AC) grounding (green) conductor of the shore power cable to effectively block low voltage (DC) galvanic current, but permit the passage of alternating current (AC) normally associated with the (AC) grounding (green) conductor.


Ground – Ground applies to the potential of the earth’s surface. The boat’s ground is established by a 
conducting connection (intentional or accidental) with the earth, including any conductive part of the wetted surface of a hull.


Ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) – A device intended for the protection of personnel that functions to de-energize a circuit, or portion thereof, within an established period of time when a current to ground exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate the over current protective device of the supply circuit.


Ground fault protector (GFP) – A device intended to protect equipment by interrupting the electric current to the load when a fault current to ground exceeds some predetermined value that is less than that required to operate the over current protection device of that supply circuit.


Ignition protection – The design and construction of a device such that under design operating conditions:

  1. it will not ignite a flammable hydrocarbon mixture surrounding the device when an ignition source causes an internal explosion, or
  2. it is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy to ignite a hydrocarbon mixture, or
  3. the source of ignition is hermetically sealed.

NOTES: 1. A flammable hydrocarbon mixture is a mixture of gasoline and air, CNG and air, or propane (LPG) and air between the lower explosive limit (LEL) and upper explosive limit (UEL).

  1. It is not intended to require such devices to be “explosion proof” as that term is defined in the National Electrical Code of the NFPA pertaining to shore systems.
  2. It is intended that the protection provided be generally equivalent to that of wiring permitted by this standard wherein a definite short or break would be necessary to produce an open spark.
  3. Devices that are “explosion proof” are considered to be ignition protected when installed with the appropriate fittings to maintain their “explosion proof” integrity.
  4. It is not intended to require such devices to be “intrinsically safe” per Article 504 of the National Electrical Code of the NFPA.
  5. Devices that are “intrinsically safe” are considered to be ignition protected.
  6. Test standards to determine ignition protection include SAE J1171, External Ignition Protection of

Marine Electrical Devices, and UL 1500, Ignition Protection Test For Marine Products, and the electrical system requirements for boats in Title 33 CFR 183.410(a).


Overcurrent protection device – A device, such as a fuse or circuit breaker, designed to interrupt the circuit when the current flow exceeds a predetermined value.


Panelboard – An assembly of devices for the purpose of controlling and/or distributing power on a boat. It includes devices such as circuit breakers, fuses, switches, instruments, and indicators.


Pigtails – External conductors that originate within an electrical component or appliance installed by their manufacturer.


Polarized system AC- A system in which the grounded and ungrounded conductors are connected in the same relation to terminals or leads on devices in the circuit.


Polarized system DC- A system in which the grounded (negative) and ungrounded (positive) conductors are connected in the same relation to terminals or leads on devices in the circuit.

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Definitions – Continued

Readily accessible – Capable of being reached quickly and safely for effective use under emergency conditions without the use of tools.


Self-limiting – A device whose maximum output is restricted to a specified value by its magnetic and 
electrical characteristics.


Sheath – A material used as a continuous protective covering, such as overlapping electrical tape, woven sleeving, molded rubber, molded plastic, loom, or flexible tubing, around one or more insulated 
conductors.


Shore power inlet – The fitting designed for mounting on the boat, of a reverse service type, requiring a female connector on the shore power cable in order to make the electrical connection.


Switchboard – An assembly of devices for the purpose of controlling and/or distributing power on a boat. It may include devices such as circuit breakers, fuses, switches, instruments, and indicators. They are generally accessible from the rear as well as from the front, and are not intended to be installed in cabinets.


Transformer, isolation – A transformer meeting the requirements of E-11.9.1 installed in the shore power supply circuit on a boat to electrically isolate all AC system conductors, including the AC grounding conductor (green) on the boat, from the AC system conductors of the shore power supply.


Transformer, polarization – An isolated winding transformer, i.e., a “dry type,” encapsulated lighting 
transformer, installed in the shore power supply circuit on the boat to electrically isolate the normally current carrying AC system conductors, but not the AC grounding conductor (green), from the normally current carrying conductors of the shore power supply.

NOTE: Electrostatic shields that are available on some lighting transformers generally do not meet the fault current ampacity requirements of E- 11.9.1.3 Trip free circuit breaker – A resettable overcurrent protection device; designed so that the means of resetting cannot override the current interrupting mechanism.


Watertight – So constructed that water will not enter the enclosure under the test conditions specified in NEMA Standard 250, Type 6P.


Weatherproof – Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not interfere with 
successful operation.

NOTE: For the purpose of this standard, as applied to marine use, weatherproof implies resistance to rain, spray, and splash.

11.5. REQUIREMENTS

11.5.1. IN GENERAL

11.5.1.1. AMBIENT TEMPERATURE

The ambient temperature of machinery spaces is considered to be 50°C (122°F) and of all other spaces is considered to be 30°C (86°F). The ambient temperature for rating of shore power cables shall be 30°C (86°F).

11.5.1.2. MARKING

11.5.1.2.1. Marking of Controls – All switches and electrical controls shall be marked to indicate their usage.

EXCEPTION: A switch or electrical control whose purpose is obvious and whose mistaken operation will not cause a hazardous condition.

11.5.1.2.2. Marking of Equipment – Electrical equipment, except a part of an identified assembly, such as an engine, shall be marked or identified by the manufacturer to indicate:

11.5.1.2.2.1. manufacturer’s identification, 11.5.1.2.2.2. product identification or model number,

11.5.1.2.2.3. AC electrical rating in volts and amperes or volts and watts, OR

11.5.1.2.2.4. DC electrical rating in volts as appropriate.

11.5.1.2.2.5. Rated amperage or wattage of DC electrical equipment shall be available.

NOTE: Rated amperage or wattage of DC electrical equipment may be marked on the device. (See E- 11.5.1.2.2.5)

11.5.1.2.2.6. The terminal polarity oridentification, if necessary to operation

11.5.1.2.2.7. Phase and frequency, if applicable,and

11.5.1.2.2.8. “Ignition Protected,” if applicable. This shall be identified by a marking such as “SAE

J1171 Marine,” “UL Marine-Ignition Protected,” or “Ignition Protected.”

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11.5.1.3. IGNITION PROTECTION

11.5.1.3.1. Potential electrical sources of ignition located in spaces containing gasoline powered machinery, or gasoline fuel tank(s), or joint fitting(s), or other connection(s) between components of a gasoline system, shall be ignition protected, unless the component is isolated from a gasoline fuel source as described in E-11.5.1.3.3 (See Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6, Figure 7, and Figure 8.)

EXCEPTION: 1. Boats using diesel fuel as the only fuel source.

  1. Outboard engines mounted externally or in compartments open to the atmosphere in accordance with the requirements of ABYC H-2, Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline.

11.5.1.3.2. If LPG or CNG is provided on the boat, all electrical potential sources of ignition located in compartments containing LPG/CNG appliances, cylinders, fittings, valves or regulators shall be ignition protected.

EXCEPTION: For boats with LPG/CNG systems installed in accordance with ABYC A-1, Marine Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Systems, or ABYC A-22, Marine Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Systems, and stoves that comply with ABYC A-3, Galley Stoves, electrical devices in the following compartments are excepted:

  1. Accommodation spaces
  2. Open compartments having at least 15 square inches (968 mm2) of open area per cubic foot (0.03 m2) of net compartment volume exposed to the atmosphere outside of the craft.

11.5.1.3.3. An electrical component is isolated from a gasoline fuel source if

11.5.1.3.3.1. a bulkhead that meets the requirements of E-11.5.1.3.4 (Figure 7 and Figure 8) is between the electrical components and the gasoline fuel source; or

11.5.1.3.3.2. the electrical component is

11.5.1.3.3.2.1. lower than the gasoline fuel source and a means is provided to prevent gasoline fuel and gasoline fuel vapors that may leak from the gasoline fuel sources from becoming exposed to the electrical component, or

11.5.1.3.3.2.2. higher than the gasoline fuel source and a deck or other enclosure is between it and the gasoline fuel source, or

11.5.1.3.3.2.3. the distance between the electrical component and the gasoline fuel source is at least two

feet (610mm), and the space is open to the atmosphere. (See Figure 6.)

11.5.1.3.4. Each bulkhead required by E-

11.5.1.3.3.1 shall (see Figure 7 and Figure 8.)

11.5.1.3.4.1. separate the electrical component from the fuel source, and extend both vertically and horizontally the distance of the open space between the gasoline fuel source and the ignition source, and

11.5.1.3.4.2. resist a water level that is 12 inches (305 mm) high or one-third of the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, without seepage of more than one-quarter fluid ounce (7.5 cc) of fresh water per hour; and

11.5.1.3.4.3. shall have no opening higher than 12 inches (305 mm) or one-third the maximum height of the bulkhead, whichever is less, unless the opening is used for the passage of conductors, piping, ventilation ducts, mechanical equipment, and similar items, or doors, hatches and access panels, and the maximum annular space around each item or door, hatch, or access panel must not be more than onequarter inch (6mm)

11.5.1.3.5. To minimize the potential for migration of carbon monoxide from machinery compartments containing gasoline engines to adjacent accommodation compartments, bulkhead and deckpenetrations shall be in accordance with the requirements of ABYC H-2, Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline.

NOTE: For additional information (See ABYC TH-

22, Educational Information About Carbon Monoxide, and ABYC TH-23, Design, Construction,

and Testing of Boats in Consideration of Carbon Monoxide.)

11.5.2. REQUIREMENTS FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.5.2.1. Two-Wire System – All direct current (DC) electrical distribution systems shall be of the two-wire type. (See Figures 9A and 9 B, and Figures 10 A and 10 B.)

EXCEPTION: Engine mounted equipment.

 

11.5.2.2. DC Grounding Systems and Bonding – A metallic hull, or the bonding and DC grounding systems, shall not be used as a return conductor. (See Figures 9A and 9 B, and Figures 10 A and 10 B, and E-11.18 DC Grounding and Bonding.)

 

11.5.2.3. Grounded Systems – If one side of a two-wire direct current system is connected to ground,it shall be the negative side and polarized as defined in E-11.4.

11.5.2.4. Multiple Engine Installation – If a boat has more than one engine with a grounded cranking motor, which includes auxiliary generator engine(s),the engines shall be connected to each other by a common conductor that can carry the cranking motor current of each of the grounded cranking motor circuits. Outboard engines shall be connected at the battery negative terminals.

11.5.2.5. Crossover (Parallel) Cranking Motor Circuits – In multiple inboard engine installations, which includes auxiliary generator(s) with cross-over (parallel) cranking motor systems, the engines shall be connected together with a cable large enough to carry the cranking motor current. This cable and its terminations shall be in addition to, and independent of, any other electrical connections to the engines including those required in E-11.5.2.4.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Installations using ungrounded DC electrical systems.


  1. Outboard engines.

11.5.2.6. If a paralleling switch is installed, it shall be capable of carrying the largest cranking motor current.

NOTE: A paralleling switch may be either of the maintained contact or momentary contact type.

11.5.2.7. DC System Negative Connections

11.5.2.7.1. If an alternating current (AC) system is installed, the main AC system grounding bus

shall be connected to 11.5.2.7.1.1. the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus on grounded DC systems, or 11.5.2.7.1.2. the boat’s DC grounding bus in installations using ungrounded DC electrical systems.

(See FIGURE 18)


11.5.2.7.2. The negative terminal of the battery, and the negative side of the DC system, shall be connected to the engine negative terminal or its bus. On boats with outboard motors, the load return

lines shall be connected to the battery negative terminal or its bus, unless specific provision is made

by the outboard motor manufacturer for connection to the engine negative terminal.


11.5.2.7.3. If an accessory negative bus with provision for additional circuits is used for the connection of accessories, the ampacity of this bus, and the conductor connected to the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus, shall be at least equal to the ampacity of the feeder(s) to the panelboard(s) supplying the connected accessories. (See Figures 9A and 9 B, and Figures 10 A and 10 B.)


11.5.2.7.4. If the negative side of the DC system is to be connected to ground, the connection

shall be made only from the engine negative terminal, or its bus, to the DC grounding bus. This connection shall be used only as a means of maintaining the negative side of the circuit at ground potential and is not to carry current under normal operating conditions.


11.5.2.7.5. Continuously energized parts, such as positive battery terminals and both ends of all wire connected thereto, shall be physically protected with boots, or other form of protection, that cover all energized surfaces to prevent accidental short circuits.

EXCEPTION: Circuits that have overcurrent protection at the source of power in accordance with

E-11.12.

 

11.5.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.5.3.1. The system shall be polarized as defined in E- 11.4


11.5.3.2. A grounded neutral system is required. The neutral for AC power sources shall be grounded

only at the following points:

11.5.3.2.1. The shore power neutral is grounded through the shore power cable and shall not be grounded on board the boat.

11.5.3.2.2. The secondary neutral of an isolation transformer or polarization transformer shall be grounded at the secondary of an isolation or polarization transformer. (See DIAGRAM 5 ,

DIAGRAM 6, DIAGRAM 7, DIAGRAM 8,

DIAGRAM 9, DIAGRAM 10, DIAGRAM 11,

DIAGRAM 12, and DIAGRAM 13 . See Exception.) 11.5.3.2.3. The generator neutral shall be

grounded at the generator. (See DIAGRAM 2 or DIAGRAM 4.)

11.5.3.2.4. The inverter output neutral shall be grounded at the inverter. The inverter output neutral shall be disconnected from ground when the inverter is operating in the charger or the feed-through

mode(s). (See ABYC A-25, Power Inverters.) EXCEPTION: Exception to E-11.5.3.2.2., E- 11.5.3.2.3 and E-11.5.3.2.4: For systems using an isolation transformer or polarization transformer, both the generator or inverter neutral and the transformer secondary neutrals may be grounded at the AC main grounding bus instead of at the generator, inverter, or transformer secondaries. (See DIAGRAM 5 .)


11.5.3.3. The main AC system grounding bus shall be connected to 11.5.3.3.1. the engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus on grounded DC systems, or 11.5.3.3.2. the boat’s DC grounding bus in installations using ungrounded DC electrical systems.


11.5.3.4. In AC circuit, all current carrying conductors and the grounding conductor shall be run together in the same cable, bundle or raceway.

11.5.3.5. There shall be no switch or overcurrent protection device in the AC grounding (green) conductor.

11.5.3.6. When more than one shore power inlet is used, the shore power neutrals shall not be connected together on board the boat.

11.5.3.7. Individual circuits shall not be capable of being energized by more than one source of

electrical power at a time. Each shore power inlet, generator, or inverter is a separate source of electrical power.

11.5.3.7.1. The transfer from one power source circuit to another shall be made by a means that opens all current-carrying conductors, including neutrals, before closing the alternate source circuit, and prevents arc-over between sources.

11.5.3.7.2. A means for disconnecting all power sources from the load shall be provided at the

same location.

EXCEPTION: Exception to E-11.5.3.7 and its subsections: The grounded neutral from a polarization transformer, isolation transformer, generator or inverter may be permanently connected to the same main AC grounding bus (See E-11.7.2.2,

DIAGRAM 5 ) and is not required to be switched.

11.5.3.8. Energized parts of electrical equipment shall be guarded against accidental contact by the use of enclosures or other protective means that shall not be used for non-electrical equipment.

11.5.3.8.1. Access to energized parts of the electrical system shall require the use of hand tools.

11.6. SYSTEM VOLTAGE

11.6.1. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.6.1.1. Nominal system voltages for AC electrical systems shall be selected from the following:

11.6.1.1.1. 120 volts AC, single phase;

11.6.1.1.2. 240 volts AC, single phase;

11.6.1.1.3. 120/240 volts AC, single phase;

11.6.1.1.4. 120/240 volts AC, delta three phase; or

11.6.1.1.5. 120/208 volts AC, Wye three phase.

11.7. POWER SOURCE

11.7.1. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.7.1.1. BATTERY

11.7.1.1.1. BATTERY CAPACITY 11.7.1.1.1.1. The battery, or battery bank, shall

have at least the cold cranking amperage required by the engine manufacturer.

11.7.1.1.1.2. The battery, or battery bank, shall have a rated reserve capacity so that,

11.7.1.1.1.2.1. for boats with one battery charging source the battery shall be capable of supplying the total load of Column A in TABLE II for a minimum of 1 1/2 hours; or 11.7.1.1.1.2.2. for boats with multiple simultaneous battery charging sources, the capacity of all charging sources, except the largest charging source shall be subtracted from the total load of Column A. The battery shall be capable of supplying the resulting differences for a minimum of 1 1/2 hours.

11.7.1.1.2. Use TABLE I for reserve capacity values, or the following formula derived from

Peukert’s equation to calculate the required reserve capacity:

T = 0.0292 x I 1.225 x 60

T = battery reserve capacity in minutes

I = total current of column A in amperes per E- 11.10.1.1

TABLE I – RESERVE CAPACITY OF BATTERIES

DERIVED FROM PEUKERT’S EQUATION

Amperes

Reserve Capacity

Minutes

5 13

10 29

15 48

20 69

25 90

30 113

35 136

40 160

45 185

55 211

55 237

60 264

65 291

70 318

75 347

80 375

85 404

90 433

95 463

100 493

105 523

110 554

NOTE: The values in Table I are calculated using

Peukert’s equation.

11.7.1.2. BATTERY SWITCH

11.7.1.2.1. A battery switch shall be installed in the positive conductor(s) from each battery or battery bank with a CCA rating greater than 800 amperes.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Trolling motor conductors connected to dedicated trolling motor batteries provided with overcurrent protection at the battery and a manual means of electrical disconnect separate from the trolling motor controls.

  1. Conductors supplying the following may be connected to the battery side of the switch (See FIGURE 11 ):
  2. Electronic equipment with continuously powered memory;
  3. Safety equipment such as bilge pumps, alarms, CO detectors and bilge blowers;
  4. Battery charging equipment.

11.7.1.2.2. A battery switch shall be mounted in a readily accessible location as close as practicable to the battery.

11.7.1.2.3. Battery Switch Ratings – The intermittent rating of a battery switch shall not be less than the maximum cranking current of the largest engine cranking motor that it serves. The minimum continuous rating of a battery switch shall be the total of the ampacities of the main overcurrent protection devices connected to the battery switch, or the ampacity of the feeder cable to the switch, whichever is less.

11.7.2. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.7.2.1. SHORE POWER

11.7.2.1.1. SHORE POWER SUPPLY

11.7.2.1.1.1. Power Inlet – The receptacle, or receptacles, installed to receive a connecting cable to carry AC shore power aboard shall be a male type connector.

11.7.2.1.1.1.1. Power inlets installed in locations subject to rain, spray, or splash shall be weatherproof whether or not in use.

11.7.2.1.1.1.2. Power inlets installed in areas subject to flooding or momentary submersion shall be of a watertight design whether or not in use.

11.7.2.1.1.1.3. Metallic power inlets installed on metallic or carbon fiber reinforced boats using an isolation transformer or a galvanic isolator shall be insulated from metallic structure and components. On non-metallic boats using an isolation transformer or a galvanic isolator the power inlet shall be insulated from metallic components connected to the boat’s ground.

11.7.2.1.1.2. Shore Power Cable – On each boat equipped with an AC shore power system, a shore power cable that contains the conductors for the power circuit and a grounding (green) conductor shall be provided.

11.7.2.1.1.2.1. Except where the shore power cable is permanently connected to the boat, the boat end of this cable shall be terminated with a locking and grounding female type connector to match the boat power inlet. (See FIGURE 13 and FIGURE 14 .)

11.7.2.1.1.2.2. The shore power cable shall be flexible cord with the minimum properties of Type SOW, STW, STOW, SEOW, or STOOW, and shall be suitable for outdoor use. The shore connection end of this cable shall be fitted with a locking and grounding type plug with the required number of poles and shall comply with Article 555 of the National Electrical Code. (See FIGURE 13 or FIGURE 14 and Table VIII A)

11.7.2.1.1.3. Shore Power Inlet Warning

11.7.2.1.1.3.1. Labels and warnings shall comply with ABYC T-5, Safety Signs and Labels.

11.7.2.1.1.3.2. Labels shall include the following informational elements:

11.7.2.1.1.3.2.1. the signal word for the level of hazard intensity;

11.7.2.1.1.3.2.2. nature of the hazard;

11.7.2.1.1.3.2.3. consequences that can result if the instructions to avoid the hazard are not followed;

and

11.7.2.1.1.3.2.4. instructions on how to avoid the hazard.

11.7.2.1.1.3.3. A permanently mounted waterproof warning sign shall be located at each shore power inlet location on the boat.

NOTE: An example of such a label follows:

WARNING

Electrical shock and fire hazard.

Failure to follow these instructions

may result in injury or death.

(1) Turn off the boat’s shore power connection switch before connecting or disconnecting the shore power cable.

(2) Connect shore power cable at the boat first.

(3) If polarity-warning indicator is activated, immediately disconnect cable.

(4) Disconnect shore power cable at shore outlet first.

(5) Close shore power inlet cover tightly.

DO NOT ALTER SHORE POWER CABLE CONNECTORS

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Item 3 is not required if a polarity indicator is not installed. (See E-11.8.)

  1. Items 2 and 4 are not required for permanently connected shore power cables.

 

11.7.2.2. APPLICATION OF TYPES OF SHORE POWER CIRCUITS

11.7.2.2.1. Single Phase 120-Volt Systems with Shore-Grounded (White) Neutral Conductor and Grounding (Green) Conductor. (See DIAGRAM 1, DIAGRAM 2, and DIAGRAM 3.)

11.7.2.2.1.1. The shore grounded (white) and ungrounded shore current carrying conductors are

connected from the shore power inlet to the boat’s AC electrical system through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both current carrying conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.2.1.2. Neither the shore grounded (white) neutral conductor nor the ungrounded current

carrying conductors shall be grounded on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.1.)

11.7.2.2.1.3. When more than one shore power inlet is used, the shore power neutrals shall not be

connected together on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.6.) 11.7.2.2.1.4. The shore-grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.3.5.),

from the shore power inlet to 11.7.2.2.1.4.1. an optional galvanic isolator, and then to 11.7.2.2.1.4.2. all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including 11.7.2.2.1.4.3. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.2.1.5. If an optional galvanic isolator is used, the shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.2.1.6. If the boat’s AC electrical system includes branch circuit breakers, the branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open both current carrying conductors unless a polarity indicating device

is provided. (See E-11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.2.1.7. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits (see DIAGRAM 1, DIAGRAM

2, and DIAGRAM 3)

DIAGRAM 1 – (See E-11.7.2.2.1.)

Note: this diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to the appropriate text

DIAGRAM 2 – (See E-11.7.2.2.1.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

DIAGRAM 3 – (See E-11.7.2.2.1.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

11.7.2.2.2. Single Phase 120/240 Volt System With Shore Grounded (White) Neutral Conductor And Grounding (Green) Conductor. (See DIAGRAM 4.)

11.7.2.2.2.1. Each ungrounded shore conductor is connected from the shore power inlet to the boat’s

AC electrical system through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both

ungrounded current carrying conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.2.2.2. The shore grounded (white) neutral conductor from the shore power inlet is connected to the neutral conductors in the boat’s AC electrical system without overcurrent protection devices. (See E- 11.5.3.2.)

EXCEPTION: An overcurrent protection device may be used in the shore grounded neutral conductor provided the overcurrent protection device simultaneously opens all current carrying conductors in the circuits.

11.7.2.2.3. The generator or inverter neutral is grounded at the generator or inverter. (See E- 11.5.3.2.3.)

11.7.2.2.4. Neither the shore grounded (white) neutral conductor nor ungrounded current carrying conductors shall be grounded on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.1.)

11.7.2.2.5. When more than one shore power inlet is used, the shore power neutrals shall not be

connected together on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.6.)

11.7.2.2.6. The shore-grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from the shore power inlet to 11.7.2.2.6.1. an optional galvanic isolator, and then to 11.7.2.2.6.2. all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including 11.7.2.2.6.3. the engine negative terminal or its

bus.

11.7.2.2.6.4. If an optional galvanic isolator is used the shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be

electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.2.7. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole in the ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.2.8. 240-volt branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open all current carrying conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.2.9. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 4.) DIAGRAM 4 – (See E-11.7.2.2.2)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text

11.7.2.3. Polarization Transformer System with A Single Phase 240 Volt Input and a 120/240-Volt

Output, And Generator Illustrating the Use Of Main AC Grounding Bus. (See DIAGRAM 5 .)

11.7.2.3.1. Each ungrounded shore current carrying conductor is connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the polarization transformer through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both ungrounded current carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used in

lieu of the simultaneous trip devices. See E- 11.12.2.9.2.

11.7.2.3.2. The shore grounded (white) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.3.3. The shore grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from the shore power inlet to 11.7.2.3.3.1. an optional galvanic isolator, and then to
11.7.2.3.3.2. the transformer grounded secondary terminal, and

11.7.2.3.3.3. the transformer metal case, and

11.7.2.3.3.4. to all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.3.3.5. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.3.4. If an optional galvanic isolator is used the shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.3.5. The secondary of the polarization transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See

E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.3.6. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.3.7. 240-volt branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open all current carrying conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.3.8. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 5 .)

DIAGRAM 5 – (See E-11.7.2.3.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text

11.7.2.4. Isolation Transformer System with Single Phase 120 Volt Input, 120-Volt Output with

Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield and Metal Case Grounded on the Shore. (See DIAGRAM 6.)

11.7.2.4.1. The shore grounded (white) and ungrounded shore current carrying conductors are connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both current-carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.4.2. The shore grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from the shore power inlet to

11.7.2.4.2.1. the transformer metal case, and

11.7.2.4.2.2. the transformer shield.

11.7.2.4.3. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.4.4. The transformer case is protected by a ventilated nonconductive enclosure.

11.7.2.4.5. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.4.6. The boat grounding system (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E- 11.5.2.5), from

11.7.2.4.6.1. the transformer grounded secondary terminal , and

11.7.2.4.6.2. to all non-current-carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.4.6.3. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.4.7. 120 -volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the ungrounded current-carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.4.8. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 6.) DIAGRAM 6 – (See E-11.7.2.4.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text

11.7.2.5. Isolation Transformer System with a Single Phase 120-Volt Input, 120-Volt Output with Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield Grounded On the Shore. Transformer Metal Case Grounded on the Boat. (See DIAGRAM 7.)

11.7.2.5.1. The shore grounded (white) and ungrounded shore current carrying conductors are connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both current carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip devices. (See E- 11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.5.2. The shore grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.3.4), from the shore power inlet to

11.7.2.5.2.1. the isolation transformer shield.

11.7.2.5.3. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.5.4. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.) 11.7.2.5.5. The boat grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.3.4), from 11.7.2.5.5.1. the transformer grounded secondary terminal,

11.7.2.5.5.2. the transformer metal case , and

11.7.2.5.5.3. to all non-current-carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.5.5.4. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.5.5.5. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.5.5.6. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See E-11.5.3.1.) DIAGRAM 7 – (See E-11.7.2.5.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text

11.7.2.6. Isolation Transformer System with a Single Phase 120-Volt Output with Ground Fault Protection and Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield and Metal Case Grounded on the Boat. (See DIAGRAM 8.)

11.7.2.6.1. The shore grounded (white) and ungrounded shore current carrying conductors are connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through a ground fault protection device (See E-11.13) that simultaneously opens both current carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.6.2. The shore grounding (green) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.6.3. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.6.4. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.) 11.7.2.6.5. The boat grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from

11.7.2.6.5.1. the transformer grounded secondary terminal,

11.7.2.6.5.2. the transformer metal case,

11.7.2.6.5.3. the transformer shield, and

11.7.2.6.5.4. to all non-current-carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.6.5.5. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.6.5.6. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single-pole breakers in the

ungrounded current-carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.6.5.7. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 8.) DIAGRAM 8 – (See E-11.7.2.6.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete System. Refer to appropriate text.

11.7.2.7. Isolation Transformer System with Single Phase 240 Volt Input, 120/240-Volt Output with a Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield and Metal Case Grounded on the Shore. (See DIAGRAM 9.)

11.7.2.7.1. Each ungrounded shore current carrying conductor is connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both current-carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.7.2. The shore grounded (white) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.7.3. The shore grounding (green)  conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.3.4), from the shore power inlet to

11.7.2.7.3.1. the transformer metal case and

11.7.2.7.3.2. the transformer shield.

11.7.2.7.4. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.7.5. The transformer case is protected by a ventilated non-conductive enclosure.

11.7.2.7.6. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.7.7. The boat-grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5.),

from

11.7.2.7.7.1. the transformer grounded  secondary terminal, and

11.7.2.7.7.2. to all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.7.7.3. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.7.8. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.7.9. 240-volt branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open all current-carrying conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.7.10. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 9.) DIAGRAM 9 – (See E-11.7.2.7.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text

11.7.2.8. Isolation Transformer System with Single Phase 240 Volt Input, 120/240-Volt Output with Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield Grounded on the Shore. Transformer Metal Case Grounded on the Boat. (See DIAGRAM 10.)

11.7.2.8.1. Each ungrounded shore current carrying conductor is connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through an overcurrent protection device that simultaneously opens both current carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.8.2. The shore grounded (white) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.8.3. The shore grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from the shore power inlet to the transformer shield.

11.7.2.8.4. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.8.5. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.8.6. The boat grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.3.4), from

11.7.2.8.6.1. the transformer grounded secondary terminal,

11.7.2.8.6.2. the transformer metal case, and

11.7.2.8.6.3. to all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.8.6.4. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.8.7. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the ungrounded current-carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.8.8. 240-volt branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open all current-carrying conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.8.9. Polarization of conductors must be observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 10.) DIAGRAM 10 – (See E-11.7.2.8.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

11.7.2.9. Isolation Transformer System with Single-Phase 240-Volt Input, 120/240-Volt Output  With Ground Fault Protection and Boat Grounded Secondary. Transformer Shield and Metal Case Grounded on the Boat. (See DIAGRAM 11.)

11.7.2.9.1. Each ungrounded shore current carrying conductor is connected from the shore power inlet to the primary winding of the isolation transformer through a ground fault protection device that simultaneously opens both current-carrying shore conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.9.2. The shore grounded (white) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.9.3. The shore grounding (green) terminal of the shore power inlet is not connected on the boat.

11.7.2.9.4. The shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.9.5. The secondary of the isolation transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.9.6. The boat grounding (green) conductor is connected, without interposing switches or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5), from

11.7.2.9.6.1. the transformer grounded secondary terminal,

11.7.2.9.6.2. the transformer metal case,

11.7.2.9.6.3. the transformer shield and

11.7.2.9.6.4. to all non-current carrying parts of the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.9.6.5. the engine negative terminal or its bus.

11.7.2.9.7. 120-volt branch circuit breakers are permitted to be single pole breakers in the

ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E- 11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.9.8. 240-volt branch circuit breakers shall simultaneously open all current carrying

conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.9.9. Polarization of conductors must be

observed in all circuits. (See DIAGRAM 11.)

DIAGRAM 11 – (See E-11.7.2.9.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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Power source – Application of type of shore power

circuits – Continued

11.7.2.10. Polarization Transformer System

with a Single Phase 120-Volt Input, 120-Volt Output

and Shore Grounded Secondary. (See DIAGRAM

12.)

11.7.2.10.1. The shore grounded (white) and

ungrounded shore current carrying conductors are

connected from the shore power inlet to the primary

winding of the polarization transformer through an

overcurrent protection device that simultaneously

opens both current carrying shore conductors. Fuses

shall not be used instead of the simultaneous trip

devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.10.2. The shore grounding (green)

conductor is connected, without interposing switches

or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5),

from the shore power inlet to

11.7.2.10.2.1. an optional galvanic isolator, and

then to

11.7.2.10.2.2. the transformer grounded

secondary terminal,

11.7.2.10.2.3. the transformer metal case and

11.7.2.10.2.4. to all non-current carrying parts of

the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.10.2.5. the engine negative terminal or its

bus.

11.7.2.10.3. If an optional galvanic isolator is

used the shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be

electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.10.4. The secondary of the polarization

transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See

E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.10.5. 120-volt branch circuit breakers

are permitted to be single pole breakers in the

ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E-

11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.10.6. Polarization of conductors must be

observed in all circuits.(See DIAGRAM 12.)

DIAGRAM 12 – (See E-11.7.2.10.)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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Power source – Application of type of shore power

circuits – Continued

11.7.2.11. Polarization Transformer System with a

Single-Phase 240-Volt Input, 120/240-Volt Output

and Shore Grounded Secondary. (See DIAGRAM

13 .)

11.7.2.11.1. Each ungrounded shore current

carrying conductor is connected from the shore power

inlet to the primary winding of the polarization

transformer through an overcurrent protection device

that simultaneously opens both current-carrying shore

conductors. Fuses shall not be used instead of

simultaneous trip devices. (See E-11.12.2.9.2.)

11.7.2.11.2. The shore grounding (green)

conductor is connected, without interposing switches

or overcurrent protection devices (See E-11.5.2.5),

from the shore power inlet to

11.7.2.11.2.1. an optional galvanic isolator, and

then to

11.7.2.11.2.2. the transformer grounded

secondary terminal,

11.7.2.11.2.3. the transformer metal case and

11.7.2.11.2.4. to all non-current carrying parts of

the boat’s AC electrical system, including

11.7.2.11.2.5. the engine negative terminal or its

bus.

11.7.2.11.3. If an optional galvanic isolator is

used the shell of a metallic shore power inlet shall be

electrically insulated from the boat.

11.7.2.11.4. The secondary of the polarization

transformer is grounded (polarized) on the boat. (See

E-11.5.3.2.2 and E-11.5.3.2.3 Exception.)

11.7.2.11.5. 120-volt branch circuit breakers

are permitted to be single pole breakers in the

ungrounded current carrying conductors. (See E-

11.12.2.6.1 Exception.)

11.7.2.11.6. 240-volt branch circuit breakers

shall simultaneously open all current carrying

conductors. (See E-11.12.2.6.2.)

11.7.2.11.7. Polarization of conductors must be

observed in all circuits.

11.7.2.11.8. The shore neutral shall not be

connected.

DIAGRAM 13 (See E-11.7.2.11)

Note: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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11.7.3. AC GENERATOR

11.7.3.1. AC generators shall be connected to the

electrical distribution system as required in E-11.5.3.7

(See E-11.7.2.2.1, DIAGRAM 3, DIAGRAM 4, and

DIAGRAM 5 .)

11.7.3.2. The power feeder conductor from the

AC generator shall be sized to at least accommodate

the generator’s maximum rated output and shall be

protected at the generator with overcurrent protection

devices in accordance with E-11.12.2.1, E-11.12.2.2

and E-11.12.2.3. The rating of these overcurrent

protection devices shall not exceed 120 percent of the

generator rated output.

EXCEPTION: Self limiting generators, whose

maximum overload current does not exceed 120

percent of its rated current output, do not require

additional external overcurrent protection.

11.8. SHORE POWER POLARITY DEVICES

11.8.1. Reverse polarity indicating devices

providing a continuous visible or audible signal shall

be installed in 120 V AC shore power systems and

must respond to the reversal of the ungrounded (black)

and the grounded (white) conductors (See E-

11.7.2.2.1, DIAGRAM 2,) if

11.8.1.1. the polarity of the system must be

maintained for the proper operation of the electrical

devices in the system, or

11.8.1.2. a branch circuit is provided with

overcurrent protection in only the ungrounded currentcarrying

conductors per E-11.12.2.6.1 Exception.

NOTES: 1. Reverse polarity indicating devices

respond to the reversal of an ungrounded conductor

and the grounded (white) conductor only when there

is continuity of the grounding (green) conductor to

shore.

  1. Reverse polarity indicating devices might not

respond to reversals of an ungrounded conductor

and the grounding (green) conductor, the grounded

(white) conductor and the grounding (green)

conductor, or three-phase conductors.

11.8.2. Reverse polarity indicating devices are

not required in systems employing polarization or

isolation transformers that establish the polarity on the

boat.

11.8.3. The total impedance of polarity

indicating and protection devices connected between

normal current carrying conductors (grounded [white]

conductor and ungrounded [black] conductor) and the

grounding conductor shall not be less than 25,000

ohms at 120 volts, 60 hertz at all times.

11.9. ISOLATION OF GALVANIC CURRENTS

NOTE: Boats with aluminum or steel hulls or

aluminum outdrives are subject to galvanic

corrosion because the boat ground is electrically

connected to the shore ground (via the grounding

conductor). An isolation transformer system, or a

galvanic isolator in the grounding conductor, may be

used to reduce this problem. (See E-11.7.2.2.)

11.9.1. If used, an isolation transformer shall

be of the encapsulated type and shall meet the

requirements of UL 1561, Dry Type General Purpose

and Power Transformers and the following additional

requirements: (See E-11.7.2.2, DIAGRAM 6,

DIAGRAM 7, DIAGRAM 8, DIAGRAM 9,

DIAGRAM 10, and DIAGRAM 11.)

11.9.1.1. A metallic shield shall be located

between the primary and secondary winding and be

electrically insulated from all other portions of the

transformer. It shall be designed to withstand, without

breakdown, a high potential test of 4000 volts AC, 60

Hz, for one minute, applied between the shield and all

other components such as windings, core, and outside

enclosure.

NOTE: Breakdown is considered to have occurred

when the current which flows as a result of the

application of the test voltage rapidly increases in an

uncontrolled manner.

11.9.1.2. A separate insulated wire lead or

terminal identified as the shield connection is to be

solidly connected only to the shield, and brought out

for external connection and shall be equal to or greater

than the aggregate circular mil area of the largest

transformer phase conductor(s).

11.9.1.3. The shield and its connection are to be

of sufficient ampacity to provide a sustained fault

current path for either the primary or secondary

windings to ensure operation of the main shore power

disconnect circuit breaker when subjected to a fault

current level in accordance with TABLE V – B .

11.9.1.4. The transformer shall be tested and

labeled by an independent laboratory to establish

compliance with the requirements of E-11.9.1

11.9.1.5. The transformer case is to be metallic

with a grounding terminal provided.

11.9.1.6. If used, a galvanic isolator shall meet

the requirements of ABYC A-28, Galvanic Isolators

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11.10. LOAD CALCULATIONS

11.10.1. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.10.1.1. The following method shall be used for

calculating the total electrical load requirements for

determining the minimum size of each panelboard,

switchboard, and their main conductors. Additionally

this information may be used to size the alternator, or

other charging means, and the battery. (See E-

11.7.1.1.1 and ABYC E-10, Storage Batteries.)

11.10.1.1.1. In column A of TABLE II,

Electrical Load Requirements Worksheet, list the

current rating (amps) of the loads that must be

available for use on a continuous duty basis for normal

operations;

11.10.1.1.2. In column B of TABLE II, list the

current rating (amps) of the remaining loads that are

intermittent, and total these loads. Take 10% of the

total load in column B, or the current draw of the

largest item, whichever is greater, and add this value

to the total from column A to establish the total

electrical load.

NOTE: Calculations are based on the actual

operating amperage for each load, and not on the

rating of the circuit breaker or fuse protecting that

branch circuit.

TABLE II – ELECTRICAL LOAD REQUIREMENT

WORKSHEET

A B

AMPERES AMPERES

Navigation Lights Cigarette

Lighter

Bilge Blower(s) Cabin Lighting

Bilge Pump(s) Horn

Wiper(s) Additional

Electronic

Equipment

Largest Radio

(Transmit Mode)

Trim Tabs

Depth Sounder Power Trim

Radar Toilets

Searchlight Anchor

Windlass

Instrument(s) Winches

Alarm System

(standby mode)

Fresh Water

Pump(s)

Refrigerator

Engine Electronics

Total

Column A

Total Column

B

10% Column B

Largest Item in

Column B

Total Load Required

Total Column A _____

Total Column B _____ (The larger of 10% of

Colum B or the largest item)

Total Load _____

11.10.2. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.10.2.1. POWER SOURCE OPTIONS

The method shown in E-11.10.2.2 shall be used for

calculating the total electrical load requirements for

determining the size of panelboards and their feeder

conductors along with generator, inverter, and shore

power capacities. The total power required shall be

supplied by one of the following means.

11.10.2.1.1. Single Shore Power Cable – A

shore power cable, power inlet, wiring, and

components with a minimum capacity to supply the

total load as calculated, complying with E-11.7.2.1.1.

11.10.2.1.2. Multiple Shore Power Cables –

Multiple shore power cables, power inlets, wiring, and

components shall have a minimum total capacity to

supply the total load as calculated complying with E-

11.7.2.1.1. All sources need not be of equal capacity,

but each power inlet shall be clearly marked to

indicate voltage, ampacity, phase (if a three phase

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Power Source Options – AC Systems-Continued

system is incorporated), and the load or selector

switch that it serves.

11.10.2.1.3. On Board AC Generator(s) or

Inverter(s) – On board AC generator(s) or inverter(s)

to supply the total load as calculated. Total minimum

installed KVA for a single phase system is as follows:

KVA =

Maximum Total Leg Amps. X System Voltage

1000

11.10.2.1.4. Combination of Shore Power

Cable(s), On-board Generator(s) and Inverter(s) –

A combination of power sources, used simultaneously

if the boat circuitry is arranged such that the load

connected to each source is isolated from the other in

accordance with E-11.5.3.6. Shore power cable(s)

plus on-board generator(s) and inverter(s) capacity

shall be at least as large as the total electrical load

requirements as calculated. Generator(s) and

inverters(s) installation and switching shall be as

required in E-11.7.3.

11.10.2.2. LOAD CALCULATIONS

11.10.2.2.1. The following is the method for

load calculation to determine the minimum size of

panelboards and their main feeder conductors as well

as the size of the power source(s) supplying these

devices. (See E-11.10.2.1.)

11.10.2.2.1.1. Lighting Fixtures and Receptacles

– Length times width of living space (excludes spaces

exclusively for machinery and open deck areas) times

20 watts per square meter (2 watts per square foot).

Formula:

Length (meters) x width (meters) x 20 =

_________ lighting watts, or

Length (feet) x width (feet) x 2 =

________ lighting watts.

11.10.2.2.2. Small Appliances – Galley and

Dinette Areas – Number of circuits times 1,500 watts

for each 20 ampere appliance circuits.

Formula: Number of circuits x 1,500 = _________

small appliance watts.

11.10.2.2.3. Total

Formula:

Lighting watts plus small appliance watts =

_________ total watts.

11.10.2.2.4. Load Factor

Formula: First 2,000 total watts at 100% =

_________.

Remaining total watts x 35% = _________.

Total watts divided by system voltage =

_________amperes.

11.10.2.2.5. If a shore power system is to

operate on 240 volts, split and balance loads into Leg

A and Leg B. If a shore power system is to operate on

120 volts, use Leg A only.

Leg A / Leg B

______/______ Total Amperes

11.10.2.2.6. Add nameplate amperes for motor

and heater loads

______ /______exhaust and supply fans

______ / _____air conditioners *,**

______ / _____electric, gas, or oil heaters* ______ /

_____25% of largest motor in above items

______/_____Sub-Total

NOTE: *Omit smaller of these two, except include

any motor common to both functions.

**If system consists of three or more independent

units adjust the total by multiplying by 75% diversity

factor.

11.10.2.2.7. Add nameplate amperes at

indicated use factor percentage for fixed loads:

Leg A / Leg B

______ ______Disposal -10%

______ ______Water Heater – 100%

______ ______Wall Mounted Ovens – 75%

______ ______Cooking Units – 75%

______ ______Refrigerator -100%

______ ______Freezer – 100%

______ ______Ice Maker – 50%

______ ______Dishwasher – 25%

______ ______Washing Machine – 25%

______ ______Dryer – 25%

______ ______Trash Compactor – 10%

______ ______Air Compressor – 10%

______ ______Battery Chargers – 100%

______ ______Vacuum System – 10%

______ ______Other Fixed Appliances

______ ______Sub-Total

______ ______**Adjusted Sub-Total

NOTE: **If four or more appliances are installed on

a leg, adjust the sub-total of that leg by multiplying

by 60% diversity factor.

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Load Calculations – AC Systems – Continued

11.10.2.2.8. Determine Total Loads

Leg A / Leg B

______ ______lighting, receptacles, and small

appliances (from E-11.10.2.2.5)

______ ______motors and heater loads (from E-

11.10.2.2.6)

______ ______fixed appliances (from E-

11.10.2.2.7)

______ ______ free standing range (See NOTE 1)

______ ______calculated total amperes (load)

NOTES: 1. Add amperes for free standing range as

distinguished from separate oven and cooking units.

Derive by dividing watts from TABLE III by the

supply voltage, e.g., 120 volts or 240 volts.

  1. If the total for Legs A and B are unequal, use the

larger value to determine the total power required

11.11. PANELBOARD

11.11.1. GENERAL

11.11.1.1. Boats equipped with both AC and DC

electrical systems shall have their distribution on

separate panelboards, or in the case of systems with

combined AC and DC panelboards, the panel shall be

designed so that when the panel is open there is no

access to energized AC parts without the use of tools.

11.11.1.2. A panelboard shall be installed in a

readily accessible location and shall be weatherproof

or be protected from weather and splash.

11.11.2. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.11.2.1. Panelboards shall be designed so that

there are no exposed energized AC parts accessible to

the operator when the DC panel is open.

11.11.2.2. Panelboards used on boats with more

than one system voltage shall have a permanent

marking showing the system voltage and its type

(DC).

11.11.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.11.3.1. Panelboard marking

11.11.3.1.1. The face of panelboards shall be

permanently marked with the system voltage and

either “VAC” or system frequency.

EXAMPLE: “120 VAC,” or “120V-60 hertz.”

11.11.3.1.2. If the frequency is other than 60

hertz, the frequency shall be indicated.

11.11.3.1.3. For three phase systems the

system voltage, phase, and number of conductors shall

be indicated.

11.11.3.2. A system voltmeter shall be installed

on the main panelboard if the system is permanently

connected to

11.11.3.2.1. motor circuits, or

11.11.3.2.2. a generator, or

11.11.3.2.3. an inverter. If the inverter does not

have a true sinusoidal output, the voltmeter shall be a

true RMS type. (See ABYC A-25, Power Inverters.)

EXCEPTION: The inverter voltmeter may be

installed in proximity to the panelboard.

11.12. OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

11.12.1. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.12.1.1. Battery Charging Sources

11.12.1.1.1. Each ungrounded conductor

connected to a battery charger, alternator, or other

charging source, shall be provided with overcurrent

protection within a distance of seven inches (175mm)

of the point of connection to the DC electrical system

or to the battery.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. If the conductor is connected

directly to the battery terminal and is contained

throughout its entire distance in a sheath or

enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control

box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection

shall be placed as close as practicable to the battery,

but not to exceed 72 inches (1.83m).

  1. If the conductor is connected to a source of power

other than a battery terminal and is contained

throughout its entire distance in a sheath or

enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control

box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection

shall be placed as close as practicable to the point of

connection to the source of power, but not to exceed

40 inches (1.02m). Overcurrent protection is not

required in conductors from self-limiting alternators

with integral regulators if the conductor is less than

40 inches (1.02m), is connected to a source of power

other than the battery, and is contained throughout

its entire distance in a sheath or enclosure.

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Overcurrent Protection – DC Systems – Continued

11.12.1.1.2. In addition to the provisions of E-

11.12.1.1.1, the ungrounded conductor shall be

provided with overcurrent protection within the

charging source, or within seven inches (175mm) of

the charging source, based on the maximum output of

the device.

EXCEPTION: Self-limiting devices.

11.12.1.2. Overcurrent Protection Device

Location – Ungrounded conductors shall be provided

with overcurrent protection within a distance of seven

inches (175mm) of the point at which the conductor is

connected to the source of power measured along the

conductor. (See FIGURE 15.)

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Cranking motor conductors.

  1. If the conductor is connected directly to the

battery terminal and is contained throughout its

entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a

conduit, junction box, control box or enclosed panel,

the overcurrent protection shall be placed as close as

practicable to the battery, but not to exceed 72 inches

(1.83m).

  1. If the conductor is connected to a source of power

other than a battery terminal and is contained

throughout its entire distance in a sheath or

enclosure such as a conduit, junction box, control

box or enclosed panel, the overcurrent protection

shall be placed as close as practicable to the point of

connection to the source of power, but not to exceed

40 inches (1.02m).

NOTE: See Section E- 11.16.4, Installation.

11.12.1.3. Motors or motor operated Equipment –

Motors and motor operated equipment, except for

engine cranking motors, shall be protected internally

at the equipment, or by branch circuit overcurrent

protection devices suitable for motor current. The

protection provided shall preclude a fire hazard if the

circuit, as installed, is energized for seven hours under

any conditions of overload, including locked rotor.

NOTES: 1. It may be necessary to use thermally

responsive protection devices on the equipment or

system if the motor is not capable of operating

continuously at maximum possible loading.

  1. It may be necessary to test as installed in order to

assure compliance with the locked rotor requirement.

Voltage drop, due to wire size, and delay

characteristics of the overcurrent protection device

may have to be adjusted to protect the motor.

11.12.1.4. Non-motor Loads – The rating of

overcurrent protection devices used to protect a load

other than a DC motor shall not exceed 150 percent of

the ampacity of its supply conductor. (See TABLE

IV .)

11.12.1.5. Branch Circuits

11.12.1.5.1. Each ungrounded conductor of a

branch circuit shall be provided with overcurrent

protection at the point of connection to the main

switchboard unless the main circuit breaker or fuse

provides such protection.

11.12.1.5.2. Each fuse or trip-free circuit

breaker shall be rated in accordance with E-11.12.1.3

and E-11.12.1.4 and shall not exceed 150 percent of

the conductor ampacity in TABLE IV . (See FIGURE

15.)

11.12.1.6. Panelboards and Switchboards – A tripfree

circuit breaker or a fuse shall be installed at the

source of power for panelboards and switchboards,

and shall not exceed 100 percent of the load capacity

of that panel, or 100 percent of the current carrying

capacity of the feeders.

EXCEPTION: The trip-free circuit breaker or fuse

at the source of power may be rated at up to 150

percent of the conductor ampacity if there is a submain

circuit breaker or fuse in the panelboard or

switchboard that is rated at no more than 100

percent of the load capacity, or the feeder ampacity,

whichever is less. (See FIGURE 16 .)

11.12.1.7. Circuit Breakers

11.12.1.7.1. Circuit breakers installed in spaces

requiring ignition protection shall comply with SAE

J1171, External Ignition Protection of Marine

Devices, or UL 1500, Ignition Protection Test for

Marine Products. If internal explosion tests are

required, the ignition of the test gas shall be created at

four times the current rating of the device being tested.

11.12.1.7.2. Circuit breakers shall

11.12.1.7.2.1. have a DC voltage rating of not

less than the nominal system voltage, and

11.12.1.7.2.2. be of the trip-free type, and

11.12.1.7.2.3. be capable of an interrupting

capacity according to TABLE V, and remain operable

after the fault,

EXCEPTION: Integral overcurrent protection in

electrical devices.

NOTES: 1. A fuse in series with, and ahead of the

circuit breaker, may be used to comply with TABLE

V.

  1. Consult the circuit breaker manufacturer to

determine the fuse size and the type of fuse.

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Circuit Breakers – Continued

11.12.1.7.2.4. be of the manual reset type except

as provided in E-11.12.1.9.

11.12.1.8. Fuses

11.12.1.8.1. Fuses shall have a voltage rating

of not less than the nominal system voltage.

11.12.1.8.2. Fuses installed in spaces requiring

ignition protection shall comply with SAE J1171,

External Ignition Protection for Marine Devices, or

UL 1500, Ignition Protection Test for Marine

Products. If internal explosion tests are required, the

ignition of the test gas shall be created at four times

the rating of the fuse.

11.12.1.9. Integral Overcurrent Protection

Devices – Integral overcurrent protection devices

without a manual reset may be used as an integral part

of an electrical device provided the rest of the circuit

is protected by a trip-free circuit protection device(s)

or a fuse(s).

11.12.1.10. Pigtails – Pigtails less than 7 inches

(175mm) in length are exempt from overcurrent

protection requirements.

11.12.2. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.12.2.1. Rating of Overcurrent Protection

Devices – Overcurrent protection devices shall have a

temperature rating and demand load characteristics

consistent with the protected circuit and their location

in the boat, i.e. machinery space or other space. (See

E-11.5.1.1.)

11.12.2.2. The current rating of the overcurrent

protection device shall not exceed the maximum

current carrying capacity of the conductor being

protected. (See TABLE VII and TABLE XIII)

EXCEPTION: If there is not a standard current

rating of the overcurrent protection device equal to

100 percent of the allowable current for the

conductor in TABLE V, the next larger standard

current rating may be used, provided it does not

exceed 150 percent of the current allowed by TABLE

VII or TABLE XIII.

11.12.2.3. The AC voltage rating of the

overcurrent protection device shall not be less than the

nominal voltage of the supply circuit.

11.12.2.4. Each transformer shall be provided

with overcurrent protection for the primary circuit that

also provides protection for the secondary winding(s).

11.12.2.4.1. This overcurrent feeder protection

device shall open all primary feeder conductors

simultaneously, and

11.12.2.4.1.1. it shall be rated at not more than

125% of the rated primary current of the transformer.

EXCEPTION: Feeder conductors for 120/240 -volt

primary circuits require protection only in the

ungrounded conductors.

11.12.2.5. If the transformer secondary is wired to

provide 120/240 -volt (three wire) output on the

secondary, the transformer shall also be protected on

the secondary side by a circuit breaker that

simultaneously will open all the ungrounded

conductors. This overcurrent protection shall be rated

at not more than 125 percent of the rated secondary

current of the transformer.

11.12.2.6. Branch Circuits – Each ungrounded

conductor of a branch circuit shall be provided with

overcurrent protection at the point of connection to the

panelboard bus. Each circuit breaker or fuse used for

this purpose shall be rated not to exceed the current

rating of the smallest conductor between the fuse or

circuit breaker and the load.

EXCEPTION: If there is not a standard current

rating of the overcurrent protection device equal to

100 percent of the allowable current for the

conductor in TABLE VII , the next larger standard

current rating may be used, provided it does not

exceed 150 percent of the current allowed by TABLE

VII or TABLE XIII.

11.12.2.6.1. For boats wired with 120 volt,

single-phase systems, branch circuit breakers shall

simultaneously open both current-carrying conductors.

Fuses shall not be used. (See E-11.7.2.2.1, DIAGRAM

1, and DIAGRAM 2.)

EXCEPTION: Branch circuit breakers may open

only the ungrounded current carrying conductor if

the AC system on the boat is equipped with a polarity

indicator, or transformer.

11.12.2.6.2. If branch circuits contain two or

more ungrounded current carrying conductors

protected by fuses, means shall be provided to

disconnect all energized legs of the circuit

simultaneously or remove all fuses from the circuit

simultaneously.

11.12.2.6.3. If a branch circuit contains two or

more ungrounded current-carrying conductors

protected by a circuit breaker, the circuit breakers

shall be of the simultaneous trip type.

11.12.2.7. AC Motors – Each motor

installation, and each motor of a motor operated

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Overcurrent Protection – AC Systems – Continued

device, shall be individually protected by an

overcurrent or thermal protection device.

EXCEPTION: Motors that will not overheat under

locked rotor conditions.

11.12.2.8. Circuit breakers shall meet the

requirements of UL 489, Molded Case Circuit

Protectors For Circuit Breaker Enclosures, or UL

1077, Supplementary Protectors For Use In Electrical

Equipment, or UL 1133, Boat Circuit Breakers, and

11.12.2.8.1. shall be of the manually reset tripfree

type, and

11.12.2.8.2. shall be capable of an interrupting

capacity in accordance with TABLE V – B .

EXCEPTION: Integral overcurrent protection in

electrical devices.

11.12.2.8.2.1. Generator circuit breaker ampere

interrupting capacity (rms) shall be selected

considering available transient short circuit current

(first half cycle).

11.12.2.9. Location of Overcurrent Protection

11.12.2.9.1. General Requirements

11.12.2.9.1.1. Each ungrounded current carrying

conductor shall be protected by a circuit breaker or

fuse.

11.12.2.9.1.2. A circuit breaker or fuse shall be

placed at the source of power for each circuit or

conductor except that

11.12.2.9.1.2.1. if it is physically impractical to

place the circuit breaker or fuse at the source of

power, it can be placed within seven inches (178 mm)

of the source of power for each circuit or conductor,

measured along the conductor.

11.12.2.9.1.2.2. If it is physically impractical to

place the circuit breaker or fuse at or within seven

inches of the source of power, it can be placed within

40 inches (102 cm) of the source of power for each

circuit or conductor, measured along the conductor, if

the conductor is contained throughout its entire

distance between the source of power and the required

circuit breaker or fuse in a sheath or enclosure such as

a junction box, control box, or enclosed panel.

EXCEPTION: Exception to E-11.12.2.9.1.2.

Overcurrent protection as required in sections E-

11.12.2.9.3 and E-11.12.2.9.4.

11.12.2.9.2. Simultaneous trip circuit breakers

shall be provided in power feeder conductors as

follows:

11.12.2.9.2.1. 120 volt AC, single phase –

ungrounded and grounded conductors (white),

11.12.2.9.2.2. 240 volt AC, single phase – both

ungrounded conductors,

11.12.2.9.2.3. 120/240 volt AC, single phase –

both ungrounded conductors,

11.12.2.9.2.4. 120/240 volt AC, delta three phase

– all ungrounded conductors,

11.12.2.9.2.5. 120/208 volt AC, Wye three phase

– all ungrounded conductors.

11.12.2.9.3. If the location of the main shore

power disconnect circuit breaker is in excess of 10 feet

(three meters) from the shore power inlet or the

electrical attachment point of a permanently installed

shore power cord, additional fuses or circuit breakers

shall be provided within 10 feet (three meters) of the

inlet or attachment point to the electrical system of the

boat. Measurement is made along the conductors.

11.12.2.9.3.1. If fuses are used in addition to the

main shore power disconnect circuit breaker, their

rating shall be such that the circuit breakers trip before

the fuses open the circuit, in the event of overload.

The ampere rating of the additional fuses or circuit

breaker shall not be greater than 125% of the rating of

the main shore power disconnect circuit breaker. For

120-volt service, both the grounded and ungrounded

current carrying conductors shall be provided with this

additional overcurrent protection.

11.12.2.9.4. If required, overcurrent protection

for power-feeder conductors from AC generators and

inverters, shall be within seven inches (180 mm) of the

output connections or may be within 40 inches (1.0

meter) of the output connections if the unprotected

insulated conductors are contained throughout their

entire distance in a sheath or enclosure such as a

conduit, junction box or enclosed panel.

11.13. GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

11.13.1. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.13.1.1. If installed, a ground fault protector

(GFP) shall only be used to protect equipment.

NOTE: A ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI)

may be used on single phase AC circuits to provide

additional protection for personnel and equipment.

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Ground Fault Protection – Continued

11.13.1.2. GFCI and GFP breakers shall meet the

requirements of Underwriters Laboratories standard

UL 943, Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters, and the

requirements of UL 489, Molded Case Circuit

Protectors for Circuit Breaker Enclosures.

11.13.1.3. GFCI and GFP breakers may be

installed as panelboard feeder breakers to protect all

associated circuits or in individual branch circuits.

11.13.1.4. Single-pole GFCI and GFP breakers

shall only be used if:

11.13.1.4.1. the single phase 120 volt system

has a polarity indicator, or

11.13.1.4.2. the system uses either a

polarization transformer, or

11.13.1.4.3. the system is 120/240 volts.

11.13.1.5. GFCI receptacle devices shall meet the

requirements of Underwriters Laboratories’ standard

UL 943, Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters, and the

requirements of UL 498, Electrical Attachment Plugs

and Receptacles.

11.13.1.6. GFCI receptacle devices may be

installed as part of a convenience outlet installation

either in single outlet applications or in multiple feed

through installations. (See E-11.15.3.5.)

NOTE: Isolation transformer primary main breakers

– GFP breakers may be installed as the main breaker

on the primary side of isolation transformers. (See

E-11.7.2.2, DIAGRAM 8 and DIAGRAM 11.) This

GFP breaker will provide ground fault protection

only for the primary winding of the transformer.

Protection for circuits supplied by the secondary

winding of the transformer may be provided in

accordance with E-11.12.2.4, E-11.12.2.5, E-

11.12.2.6.3, and E- 11.13.1.4

11.14. SWITCHES

11.14.1. GENERAL

11.14.1.1. Switches shall have voltage

ratings not less than the system voltage, current ratings

not less than the connected load, and shall be rated for

the type of load, i.e., inductive or resistive.

EXCEPTION: Battery switches. (See E-11.7.1.2.3.)

11.14.2. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.14.2.1. If single pole switches are used in

branch circuits they shall be installed in the positive

conductor of the circuit.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Engine mounted pressure,

vacuum, and temperature operated switches.

  1. Switches such as those used for control of alarm

systems.

11.14.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.14.3.1. Switches used in branch circuits shall

simultaneously open all ungrounded conductor(s) of

the branch circuit.

11.15. PLUGS AND RECEPTACLES

11.15.1. GENERAL

11.15.1.1. Receptacles shall be installed in

locations not normally subject to rain, spray, or

flooding but if receptacles are used in such areas the

following shall apply:

11.15.1.1.1. Receptacles installed in locations

subject to rain, spray, or splash shall be weatherproof

when not in use.

NOTE: Weatherproofing may be provided by means

such as spring-loaded, self-closing, or snap-type

receptacle covers.

11.15.1.1.2. Receptacles installed in areas

subject to flooding or momentary submersion shall be

of a watertight design as may be provided by a

threaded, gasketed cover.

11.15.1.1.3. Receptacles provided for the

galley shall be located so appliance cords can be

plugged in without crossing a traffic area, galley, stove

or sink.

11.15.1.2. Receptacles and matching plugs used

on AC systems shall not be interchangeable with

receptacles and matching plugs used on DC systems.

11.15.2. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.15.2.1. Multi-wire plugs and receptacles used

in conjunction with harness type wiring systems shall

comply with the following:

11.15.2.1.1. Plugs and receptacles shall

incorporate means, such as cable clamps, molded

connectors, insulation grips, extended terminal barrels,

etc., for supporting all wires to limit flexing at the

connection, and

11.15.2.1.2. plugs and receptacles exposed to

weather shall be weatherproof, or if subject to

immersion, shall be watertight.

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Plugs and Receptacles – DC – Continued

11.15.2.2. Each terminal in a multi-wire plug

and receptacle shall be protected from accidental

short-circuiting to adjacent terminals.

11.15.2.3. Plug connectors shall have a

minimum disengagement force of 6 pounds (2.75kg)

along the axial direction of the connector for one

minute.

11.15.2.4. The plug connector’s capacity

shall be selected to meet or exceed the ampacity and

temperature rating of the connecting conductors in

addition to its wire size capability.

11.15.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.15.3.1. Receptacles shall be installed in

boxes that meet the requirements of UL 514A,

Metallic Outlet Boxes, or 514C, Nonmetallic Outlet

Boxes, Flush Device Boxes And Covers.

11.15.3.2. Receptacles shall be of the

grounding type with a terminal provided for the

grounding (green) conductor as shown in FIGURE 12

and FIGURE 13.

11.15.3.3. Power wiring for receptacles shall

be connected so that the grounded (white) conductor

attaches to the terminal identified by the word “white”

or a light color (normally white or silver). The

ungrounded conductor(s) shall be attached to the

terminal(s) identified by a dark color (normally brass

or copper) and, optionally, the letters X, Y, and Z or

L1, L2, and L3.

11.15.3.4. A branch circuit supplying a

combination of receptacle loads and permanently

connected loads shall not supply fixed loads in excess

of the following:

11.15.3.4.1. 600 watts for a 15-ampere circuit;

11.15.3.4.2. 1000 watts for a 20-ampere

circuit.

NOTE: Refer to E- 11.10.2.2 for load calculations.

11.15.3.5. If installed in a head, galley,

machinery space, or on a weather deck, the receptacle

shall be protected by a Type A (nominal 5

milliamperes) Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter

(GFCI). (See E-11.13.)

NOTE: GFCI receptacle devices are not necessarily

ignition protected per E-11.5.1.3.1.

11.16. SYSTEM WIRING

11.16.1. CONDUCTORS

11.16.1.1. GENERAL

11.16.1.1.1. Minimum surface marking of the

individual conductors and their jackets shall include:

11.16.1.1.1.1. type/style,

11.16.1.1.1.2. voltage,

11.16.1.1.1.3. wire size, and

11.16.1.1.1.4. temperature rating, dry.

EXCEPTION: Flexible cords in Table VIII

11.16.1.1.2. Conductors shall be at least 16

AWG.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. 18 AWG conductors may be used

if included with other conductors in a sheath and do

not extend more than 30 inches (760mm) outside the

sheath.

  1. 18 AWG conductors may be used as internal

wiring on panelboards.

  1. Conductors that are totally inside an equipment

housing.

  1. Conductors on circuits of less than 50 volts having

a current flow of less than one amp in

communication systems, electronic navigation

equipment and electronic circuits.

  1. Pigtails less than seven inches (178 mm) used as

wiring on panelboards.

11.16.1.2. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.16.1.2.1. Conductors and flexible cords

shall have a minimum rating of 50 volts.

11.16.1.2.2. The construction of insulated

cables and conductors shall conform with the

requirements of:

11.16.1.2.2.1. UL 1426, Cables for Boats, or

11.16.1.2.2.2. the insulating material temperature

rating requirements of:

11.16.1.2.2.2.1. SAE J378, Marine Engine

Wiring, and

11.16.1.2.2.2.2. SAE J1127, Battery Cable, or

SAE J1128, Low-Tension Primary Cable.

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System Wiring – DC – Continued

11.16.1.2.3. Conductors may be selected from

the types listed in TABLE VI , Table VIII and TABLE

IX . The temperature ratings shown contemplate the

routing of wires above bilge water in locations

protected from dripping, exposures to weather, spray,

and oil.

11.16.1.2.4. Flexible cords shall conform with

the National Electrical Code, and shall be selected

from the types listed in Table VIII.

11.16.1.2.5. Conductors and flexible cords

shall be stranded copper according to TABLE XII.

11.16.1.2.6. Conductors used for panelboard or

switchboard main feeders shall have ampacities as

determined in E-11.10.1.1 Conductors used for branch

circuits or in electrical systems that do not use a

panelboard or switchboard shall have their ampacities

determined by their loads (See TABLE II).

11.16.1.2.7. Conductors used for panelboard or

switchboard main feeders, bilge blowers, electronic

equipment, navigation lights, and other circuits where

voltage drop must be kept to a minimum, shall be

sized for a voltage drop not to exceed three percent.

Conductors used for lighting, other than navigation

lights, and other circuits where voltage drop is not

critical, shall be sized for a voltage drop not to exceed

10 percent.

11.16.1.2.8. To determine conductor size and

insulation temperature rating, use the ampacity as

specified in E-11.16.1.2.6 in conjunction with TABLE

IV . Then use TABLE X or TABLE XI to check the

conductor size for compliance with the maximum

allowable voltage drop specified in E-11.16.1.2.7. In

the event of a conflict between the ampacity table and

the voltage drop tables, the larger conductor size shall

be used.

11.16.1.2.9. To use TABLE X and TABLE XI

, measure the length of the conductor from the positive

power source connection to the electrical device and

back to the negative power source connection. Use

the conductor length, the system voltage, and the

ampacity as specified in E-11.16.1.2.6, in conjunction

with the appropriate volt drop table, i.e., 3 percent or

10 percent – TABLE X or TABLE XI , to determine

conductor size.

NOTES: 1. The power source connection may be

the battery, or a panelboard or switchboard, if used.

  1. If the ampacity as specified in E- 11.16.1.2.6

exceeds the ampacities in TABLE XI and TABLE X,

the conductor size necessary to keep voltage drop

below the maximum permitted level may be

calculated by means of the following formula:

K x I x L

CM = —————

E

Where:

CM = Circular mil area of conductor.

K = 10.75 (constant representing the

resistivity of copper)

I = Load current in amperes

L = Length of conductor from the

positive power source connection to the electrical

device and back to the negative power source

connection, measured in feet.

E = Maximum allowable voltage drop

at load in volts (e.g., for a three percent voltage drop

at nominal 12V, E= 0.03 x 12 = 0.36; for a 10

percent voltage drop at nominal 12V,

E = 1.2).

  1. Use TABLE XII to convert circular mils (cm) to

conductor gauge. If the cm area falls between two

gauge sizes, the larger conductor shall be used.

11.16.1.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.16.1.3.1. Conductors shall have a minimum

rating of 600 volts.

11.16.1.3.2. Flexible cords shall have a

minimum rating of 300 volts.

11.16.1.3.3. The temperature rating of

conductors and flexible cords shall be at least 140oF

(60oC) dry.

11.16.1.3.4. In engine spaces,

11.16.1.3.4.1. the insulation shall be oil resistant,

and

11.16.1.3.4.2. the temperature rating shall be at

least 167oF (75°C) dry.

NOTE: Conductor rating temperatures refer to the

insulation maximum operating temperature of the

conductors.

11.16.1.3.5. All conductors and flexible cords

shall meet the flame retardant and moisture resistant

requirements of UL 83, Thermoplastic-Insulated

Wires and Cables.

11.16.1.3.6. All conductors and flexible cords

shall meet the requirements of the applicable standards

of Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

11.16.1.3.7. Conductors and flexible cords

shall be stranded copper according to TABLE XII.

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System wiring –AC- Continued

NOTE: Some currently available wire types that

meet all of the above requirements are listed in Table

VIII.

11.16.1.3.8. Conductors and flexible cords

shall be of size according to TABLE VII and TABLE

XIII.

11.16.1.3.8.1. Where single conductors or multiconductor

cables are bundled for a distance greater

than 24 inches (610 mm), the allowable ampacity of

each conductor shall be reduced as shown in TABLE

VII and TABLE XIII.

NOTE: When determining the allowable

amperage of bundled conductors using TABLE

VII and TABLE XIII, the AC grounding

conductor and a neutral conductor that carries

only the unbalanced current from other

conductors are not considered to be current

carrying conductors.

11.16.1.3.8.2. The AC grounding conductor shall

be permitted to be one size smaller than the current

carrying conductors on circuits rated greater than 30

amperes.

11.16.2. WIRING IDENTIFICATION

11.16.2.1. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.16.2.1.1. Each electrical conductor that is

part of the boat’s electrical system shall have a means

to identify its function in the system.

EXCEPTION: Pigtails less than seven inches

(175mm) in length.

11.16.2.1.2. Insulated grounding conductors

shall be identified by the color green or green with

yellow stripe(s).

11.16.2.1.3. The color code shown in TABLE

XIV identifies colors for DC conductors used for

general wiring purposes on boats.

11.16.2.1.4. The color code shown in Table

XV identifies one selection of colors for use as an

engine accessory wiring color code. Other means of

identification may be used providing a wiring diagram

of the system indicating the method of identification is

provided with each boat.

11.16.2.1.4.1. Color-coding may be

accomplished by colored sleeving or color application

to wiring at termination points.

11.16.2.1.4.2. If tape is used to mark a wire, the

tape shall be at least 3/16 inch (5mm) in width, and

shall have sufficient length to make at least two

complete turns around the conductor to be marked.

The tape shall be applied to be visible near each

terminal.

11.16.2.2. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.16.2.2.1. Conductors shall be identified to

indicate circuit polarity as follows:

ungrounded conductor black or brown

grounded neutral

conductor

white, or light blue

grounding conductor

green, green w/yellow

stripe

additional ungrounded

conductors

red, orange, blue

additional colors for

ungrounded conductors

(black)

Black w/red stripe

Black w/ blue stripe

Black w/ orange stripe

11.16.3. WIRING TERMINALS

11.16.3.1. Wiring connections shall be designed

and installed to make mechanical and electrical joints

without damage to the conductors.

11.16.3.2. Metals used for the terminal studs,

nuts, and washers shall be corrosion resistant and

galvanically compatible with the conductor and

terminal lug. Aluminum and unplated steel shall not

be used for studs, nuts, and washers.

11.16.3.3. Each conductor-splice joining

conductor to conductor, conductor to connectors, and

conductor to terminals must be able to withstand a

tensile force equal to at least the value shown in Table

XVI for the smallest conductor size used in the splice

for a one minute duration, and not break.

11.16.3.4. Terminal connectors shall be the

ring or captive spade types. (See FIGURE 17.)

EXCEPTION: Friction type connectors may be used

on components if

  1. the circuit is rated not more than 20 amperes or

the manufacturer’s rating for a terminal designed to

meet the requirements of UL 310, “Electrical Quick-

Connect Terminals”, or UL 1059, “Terminal

Block”s, and

  1. the voltage drop from terminal to terminal does

not exceed 50 millivolts for a 20 amp current flow,

and

  1. the connection does not separate if subjected for

one minute to a six pound (27 Newton) tensile force

along the axial direction of the connector, on the

first withdrawal.

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Wiring Terminals-Continued

11.16.3.5. Connections may be made using a setscrew

pressure type conductor connector, providing a

means is used to prevent the set-screw from bearing

directly on the conductor strands.

11.16.3.6. Twist on connectors, i.e., wire nuts,

shall not be used.

11.16.3.7. Solder shall not be the sole means of

mechanical connection in any circuit. If soldered, the

connection shall be so located or supported as to

minimize flexing of the conductor where the solder

changes the flexible conductor into a solid conductor.

EXCEPTION: Battery lugs with a solder contact

length of not less than 1.5 times the diameter of the

conductor.

NOTE: When a stranded conductor is soldered, the

soldered portion of the conductor becomes a solid

strand conductor, and flexing can cause the

conductor to break at the end of the solder joint

unless adequate additional support is provided.

11.16.3.8. Solderless crimp on connectors shall

be attached with the type of crimping tools designed

for the connector used, and that will produce a

connection meeting the requirements of E-11.16.3.3.

11.16.3.9. The shanks of terminals shall be

protected against accidental shorting by the use of

insulation barriers or sleeves, except for those used in

grounding systems.

11.16.4. INSTALLATION

11.16.4.1. GENERAL

11.16.4.1.1. Junction boxes, cabinets, and other

enclosures in which electrical connections are made

shall be weatherproof, or installed in a protected

location, to minimize the entrance or accumulation of

moisture or water within the boxes, cabinets, or

enclosures.

11.16.4.1.2. In wet locations, metallic boxes,

cabinets, or enclosures shall be mounted to minimize

the entrapment of moisture between the box, cabinet,

or enclosure, and the adjacent structure. If air spacing

is used to accomplish this, the minimum shall be 1/4

inch (7.0 mm).

11.16.4.1.3. Unused openings in boxes,

cabinets, and weatherproof enclosures shall be closed.

11.16.4.1.4. All conductors shall be supported

and/or clamped to relieve strain on connections.

11.16.4.1.5. When AC and DC conductors are

run together, the AC conductors shall be sheathed,

bundled, or otherwise kept separate from the DC

conductors.

11.16.4.1.6. Current-carrying conductors shall

be routed as high as practicable above the bilge water

level and other areas where water may accumulate. If

conductors must be routed in the bilge or other areas

where water may accumulate, the connections shall be

watertight.

11.16.4.1.7. Conductors shall be routed as far

away as practicable from exhaust pipes and other heat

sources. Unless an equivalent thermal barrier is

provided, a clearance of at least two inches (51 mm)

between conductors and water cooled exhaust

components, and a clearance of at least nine inches

(230 mm) between conductors and dry exhaust

components, shall be maintained. Conductors shall not

be routed directly above a dry exhaust.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Wiring on engines.

  1. Exhaust temperature sensor wiring.

11.16.4.1.8. Conductors that may be exposed

to physical damage shall be protected by self-draining;

loom, conduit, tape, raceways, or other equivalent

protection. Conductors passing through bulkheads or

structural members shall be protected to minimize

insulation damage such as chafing or pressure

displacement. Conductors shall also be routed clear of

sources of chafing such as steering cable and linkages,

engine shafts, and control connections.

11.16.4.1.9. Loom used to cover conductors

shall be self-extinguishing. The base product (or

resin) shall be classified as V-2 or better, in

accordance with UL 94, Tests For Flammability Of

Plastic Materials.

11.16.4.1.10. Conductors shall be supported

throughout their length or shall be secured at least

every 18 inches (455mm) by one of the following

methods:

11.16.4.1.10.1. By means of non-metallic clamps

sized to hold the conductors firmly in place. Nonmetallic

straps or clamps shall not be used over

engine(s), moving shafts, other machinery or

passageways, if failure would result in a hazardous

condition. The material shall be resistant to oil,

gasoline, and water and shall not break or crack within

a temperature range of -34°C (-30°F) to 121°C

(250°F);

11.16.4.1.10.2. By means of metal straps or

clamps with smooth, rounded edges to hold the

conductors firmly in place without damage to the

conductors or insulation. That section of the

conductor or cable directly under the strap or clamp

shall be protected by means of loom, tape or other

suitable wrapping to prevent injury to the conductor;

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Installation – General -Continued

11.16.4.1.10.3. By means of metal clamps lined

with an insulating material resistant to the effects of

oil, gasoline, and water.

EXCEPTIONS: Exception to E-11.16.4.1.10:

  1. Battery cables within 36 inches (910mm) of a

battery terminal.

  1. Cables attached to outboard motors.

11.16.4.1.11. No more than four conductors

shall be secured to any one terminal stud. If additional

connections are necessary, two or more terminal studs

shall be connected together by means of jumpers or

copper straps.

11.16.4.1.12. Ring and captive spade type

terminal connectors shall be the same nominal size as

the stud.

11.16.4.1.13. Conductors terminating at

panelboards in junction boxes or fixtures shall be

arranged to provide a length of conductor to relieve

tension, to allow for repairs and to permit multiple

conductors to be fanned at terminal studs.

11.16.4.2. DC SYSTEMS

11.16.4.2.1. Wiring shall be installed in a

manner that will avoid magnetic loops in the area of

the compass and magnetically sensitive devices.

Direct current wires that may create magnetic fields in

this area shall run in twisted pairs.

11.16.4.2.2. Battery cables without overcurrent

protection shall comply with the following:

11.16.4.2.2.1. Battery cables shall be routed

above normal bilge water levels throughout their

length;

11.16.4.2.2.2. Battery cables shall be routed to

avoid contact with metallic fuel system components;

11.16.4.2.2.3. The ungrounded battery cable

shall be routed to avoid contact with any part of the

engine or drive train.

11.16.4.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.16.4.3.1. All connections normally carrying

current shall be made in enclosures to protect against

shock hazards.

11.16.4.3.2. Nonmetallic outlet boxes, flush

device boxes and covers shall meet the requirements

of UL 514C, Non-metallic Outlet Boxes, Flush Device

Boxes and Covers.

11.17. APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT

11.17.1. GENERAL

11.17.1.1. All electrical appliances and

equipment designed for permanent installation

shall be securely mounted to the boat’s structure.

11.17.2. FOR DC SYSTEMS

11.17.2.1. Appliances and fixed DC electrical

equipment shall be designed so that the current

carrying parts of the device are insulated from all

exposed electrically conductive parts.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. 12-volt equipment not located in

machinery spaces, not in contact with bilge, and not

in contact with a fuel line.

  1. Communications and audio equipment
  2. Electric navigation equipment
  3. Instruments and instrument clusters
  4. Liquid level gauge transmitters. For installation

of fuel tank transmitters on conductive surfaces.

(See E-11.17.2.4.)

  1. Navigation lights operating at nominal 12 volts.

See ABYC A-16, “Electric Navigation Lights.”

  1. Auxiliary generator sets
  2. Engine mounted equipment. (See E-11.5.2.1.)

11.17.2.2. Devices subject to exceptions 1 through

8 in E-11.17.2.1 shall be installed with the case

negative, and the positive connection shall be

identified.

11.17.2.3. All exposed electrically

conductive non-current carrying parts of fixed DC

electrical equipment, and appliances that may

normally be in contact with bilge water or seawater,

shall be connected to the DC grounding system.

EXCEPTIONS: 1. Boats not equipped with a DC

grounding system.

  1. Equipment with an effective double insulation

system.

  1. Metal parts isolated in non-conductive material
  2. Electric trolling motors

11.17.2.4. Grounded Liquid Level Gauge

Transmitters (senders) – Grounded liquid level gauge

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Appliances and Equipment – DC – Continued

transmitters mounted on fuel tanks or tank plates shall

have the transmitter negative return conductor

connected directly to the DC main negative bus, the

engine negative terminal, or for outboard boats the

battery negative terminal or its bus. No other device

shall be connected to this conductor. This conductor

shall also serve as the static ground and/or the bonding

conductor for the tank and fill. If a fuel tank is

included in the lightning protection system the

conductor between the fuel tank and the DC main

negative bus shall meet the requirements of ABYC E-

4, Lightning Protection.

11.17.3. FOR AC SYSTEMS

11.17.3.1. Fixed AC electrical equipment

used on boats shall be designed so that the current

carrying parts of the device are effectively insulated

from all exposed electrically conductive parts.

11.17.3.2. All exposed, electrically

conductive, non-current carrying parts of fixed AC

electrical equipment and appliances intended to be

grounded shall be connected to the grounding

conductor.

NOTE: If an appliance( e.g., electric range, electric

dryer) has a neutral to ground bonding strap, it must

be removed in order to comply with 11.5.3.2.

11.17.3.3. Integral overcurrent protection

may be provided.

11.18. DC GROUNDING AND BONDING

11.18.1. DC Grounding – If a DC grounding

system is installed, the DC grounding conductor shall

be used to connect metallic non-current-carrying parts

of those direct current devices identified in E-

11.17.2.3 to the engine negative terminal or its bus for

the purpose of minimizing stray current corrosion.

(See FIGURE 18.)

11.18.2. DC Grounding Conductor

11.18.2.1. A DC grounding conductor shall

not be smaller than one size under that required for

current carrying conductors supplying the device and

not less than 16 AWG. (See FIGURE 18 and

FIGURE 19.)

11.18.2.2. Routing – The DC grounding

conductor shall be routed from the device to the

engine negative terminal or the DC main negative bus

by one of the following means:

11.18.2.2.1. The DC grounding conductor shall

be routed together with the current carrying

conductors as a third wire;

11.18.2.2.2. The DC grounding conductor shall

be routed as a separate conductor.

11.18.2.3. The DC grounding conductor shall

be connected to a DC grounding bus in accordance

with E-11.18.2.5.

11.18.2.4. Connections – DC grounding

conductor connections shall be made in accordance

with E-11.16.3.

11.18.2.5. DC Grounding Bus

11.18.2.5.1. The DC grounding bus shall be

connected directly to the engine negative terminal or

the DC main negative bus.

11.18.2.5.2. The DC grounding bus serving

more than one electrical device shall comply with E-

11.18.2 for the largest device, and shall be

manufactured and installed in accordance with the

following:

11.18.2.5.2.1. If the DC grounding bus is

fabricated from copper or bronze strip, it shall have a

thickness not less than 1/32 inch (0.8mm) and a width

of not less than 1/2 inch (13mm); and

11.18.2.5.2.1.1. shall be drilled and tapped

providing its thickness ensures no less than three full

threads of engagement for the terminal screws; or

11.18.2.5.2.1.2. shall be through-drilled, and the

connections made with machine screws and lock-nuts.

NOTE: Copper pipe may be used providing its wall

thickness is sufficient for the pipe to be drilled and

tapped as required above.

11.18.2.5.2.2. Copper braid shall not be used.

11.18.2.6. Combined DC Grounding and

Bonding Systems – The DC grounding conductors

may be combined with the following systems

providing all the requirements with respect to

conductor size are met for each system. (See FIGURE

18, FIGURE 19 and FIGURE 20 )

11.18.2.6.1. Lightning Protection – See ABYC

E-4, Lightning Protection.

11.18.2.6.2. Cathodic Bonding – See ABYC E-

2, Cathodic Protection.

11.18.2.6.3. Static Electricity Grounding – See

E-11.17.2.4, ABYC H-24, Gasoline Fuel Systems, and

ABYC H-33, Diesel Fuel Systems.

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Grounding and Bonding – DC – Continued

11.18.2.7. Radio Ground Plate – If the radio

ground plate is connected to the engine negative

terminal, the connecting conductor shall meet the

requirements of ABYC E-4, Lightning Protection,

since a radio ground plate may also function as a

lightning ground plate.

11.18.2.8. Coaxial Cables and Conduit – The

metallic braid of coaxial cables and metal conduit used

for radio interference, or any form of radio shielding

or armoring, shall be connected to earth ground with

an insulated stranded copper conductor.

Figure 1- ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

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Figure 2 – ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

Figure 3 – ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

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Figure 4 – ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

Figure 5 – ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

Figure 6 – ISOLATION OF ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS

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Figure 7 – ISOLATION BULKHEAD REQUIREMENTS

Figure 8 – BULKHEADS

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Figures 9 A and 9 B – TYPICAL OUTBOARD DC SYSTEM

9A

NOTES: 1. For location of overcurrent protection device (See E-11.12.1)

  1. This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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9 B

NOTES: 1. For location of overcurrent protection device (See E-11.12.1)

  1. This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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FIGURES 10 A AND 10 B – TYPCAL INBOARD DC SYSTEM WITHOUT AN AC ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

10 A

NOTES: 1. For location of overcurrent protection device (See E- 11.12.1)

  1. This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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10 B

NOTES: 1. For location of overcurrent protection device (See E-11.12.1)

  1. This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

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FIGURE 11 – MAIN AND BRANCH CIRCUIT PROTECTION

NOTE: This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to appropriate text.

FIGURE 12 – STANDARD CONVENIENCE RECEPTACLE CONFIGURATION

FIGURE 13 – SHORE POWER CABLE CONFIGURATIONS

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FIGURE 14 – SHORE POWER CABLE CONFIGURATIONS, PIN AND SLEEVE

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FIGURE 15 – BATTERY SUPPLY CIRCUITS – LOCATION OF OVERCURRENT DEVICES

NOTE: Up to 40 inches (1.02m) is allowed if the conductor throughout this distance is contained in a sheath or

enclosure, such as a junction box, control box, or enclosed panel.

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FIGURE 16 – PANELBOARDS AND SWITCHBOARDS

FIGURE 17 – SOME TYPICAL TYPES OF TERMINALS

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FIGURE 18 – DC NEGATIVE SYSTEM – DC GROUNDING SYSTEM (TYPICAL INBOARD DC SYSTEM)

NOTES: 1. Cathodic bonding – refer to ABYC E-2, “Cathodic Protection”

  1. Lightning bonding – refer to ABYC E-4 “Lightning Protection”
  2. For location of overcurrent protection device refer to ABYC E-11.12.1
  3. This diagram does not illustrate a complete system. Refer to the appropriate text.

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FIGURE 19 – DC COMMON GROUNDING SYSTEM

FIGURE 20 – COMBINED LIGHTNING/DC GROUNDING SYSTEM

NOTE: Lightning protection requires conductivity to ground of not less than that of a 4 AWG copper conductor. See

ABYC E-4, “Lightning Protection”

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TABLE III – FREE STANDING RANGE RATINGS

NAMEPLATE RATING USE

(WATTS) (WATTS)

10,000 or less 80% of rating

10,001 – 12,500 8,000

12,501 – 13,500 8,400

13,501 – 14,500 8,800

14,501 – 15,500 9,200

15,501 – 16,500 9,600

16,501 – 17,500 10,000

NOTE: Ratings are for free standing ranges as distinguished from separate oven and cooking units.

TABLE IV – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE FOR SYSTEMS UNDER 50 VOLTS

Temperature Rating of Conductor Insulation

CONDUCTOR

SIZE

60° C

(140° F)

75° C

(167° F)

80° C

(176° F)

90° C

(194° F)

105° C

(221° F)

125° C

(257° F)

200° C

(392° F)

ENGLISH

(METRIC) SEE

TABLE VIII

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE OR

INSIDE ENGINE

SPACES

18 (0.8) 10 5.8 10 7.5 15 11.7 20 16.4 20 17.0 25 22.3 25

16 (1) 15 8.7 15 11.3 20 15.6 25 20.5 25 21.3 30 25.7 35

14 (2) 20 11.6 20 15.0 25 19.5 30 24.6 35 29.8 40 35.6 45

12 (3) 25 14.5 25 18.8 35 27.3 40 32.8 45 38.3 50 44.5 55

10 (5) 40 23.2 40 30.0 50 39.0 55 45.1 60 51.0 70 62.3 70

8 (8) 55 31.9 65 48.8 70 54.6 70 57.4 80 68.0 90 80.1 100

6 (13) 80 46.4 95 71.3 100 78.0 100 82.0 120 102 125 111 135

4 (19) 105 60.9 125 93.8 130 101 135 110 160 136 170 151 180

2 (32) 140 81.2 170 127 175 138 180 147 210 178 225 200 240

1 (40) 165 95.7 195 146 210 163 210 172 245 208 265 235 280

0 (50) 195 113 230 172 245 191 245 200 285 242 305 271 325

00 (62) 225 130 265 198 285 222 285 233 330 280 355 316 370

000 (81) 260 150 310 232 330 257 330 270 385 327 410 384 430

0000 (103) 300 174 380 270 385 300 385 315 445 378 475 422 510

NOTE: Cross reference with voltage drop tables and formula in E-11.16.1.2.9., Note 2.

TABLE V – A – CIRCUIT BREAKER MINIMUM AMPERE INTERRUPTING CAPACITY FOR SYSTEMS

UNDER 50 VOLTS

Ampere Interrupting Capacity (AIC)

(amperage available at circuit breaker terminals)

Total Connected Battery

(Cold Cranking Amperes)

Main Circuit Breaker

(Amperes)

*See Note

Branch Circuit Breaker

(Amperes)

*See Note

12 Volts 650 or less 1500 750

and 651-1100 3000 1500

24 Volts over 1100 5000 2500

32 Volts 1250 or less 3000 1500

over 1250 5000 2500

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*NOTE: The main circuit breaker(s) shall be considered to be the first breaker(s) in a circuit connected in

series with the battery. All subsequent breakers, including sub-main breakers, connected in series with a main

circuit breaker shall be considered to be “branch circuit breakers.” (See FIGURE 16 .)

TABLE V – B – CIRCUIT BREAKER INTERRUPTING CAPACITY FOR SYSTEM OVER 50 VOLT

SHORE POWER

SOURCE

MAIN SHORE POWER

DISCONNECT CIRCUIT BREAKER

BRANCH BREAKER

120V – 30A 3000 3000

120V – 50A 3000 3000

120/240V – 50A 5000 3000

240V – 50A 5000 3000

120/208V – 3 phase/WYE – 30A 5000 3000

120/240V – 100A 5000 3000

120/208V – 3 phase/WYE – 100A 5000 3000

NOTES: 1. The main circuit breaker shall be considered to be the first circuit breaker connected to a source of

AC power. All subsequent breakers, including sub-main breakers connected in series with a main circuit breaker,

shall be considered to be branch circuit breakers.

  1. A fuse in series with, and ahead of, a circuit breaker may be required by the circuit breaker manufacturer

to achieve the interrupting capacity in TABLE V – B .

TABLE VI – SAE CONDUCTORS

SAE CONDUCTORS

TYPE

DESCRIPTION

AVAILABLE INSULATION TEMPERATURE

RATING PER SAE J378

GPT Thermoplastic Insulation, Braidless 60° C (140° F), 90° C (194° F), 105° C (221° F)

HDT Thermoplastic Insulation, Braidless 60° C (140° F), 90° C (194° F), 105° C (221° F)

SGT Thermoplastic Insulation, Braidless 60° C (140° F), 90° C (194° F), 105° C (221° F)

STS Thermosetting Synthetic Rubber Insulation, Braidless 85° C (185° F), 90° C (194 ° F)

HTS Thermosetting Synthetic Rubber Insulation, Braidless 85° C (185° F), 90° C (194° F)

SXL Thermosetting Cross Linked Polyethylene Insulation, Braidless 125° C (257° F)

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TABLE VII – A – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE OF CONDUCTORS WHEN NO MORE THAN TWO CURRENT

CARRYING CONDUCTORS ARE BUNDLED

TEMPERATURE RATING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION

CONDUCTOR

60°C

(140°F)

75°C

(167°F)

80°C

(176°F)

90°C

(194°F)

105°C

(221°F)

125°C

(257°F)

200°C

(392°

F)

SIZE

(AWG)

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

OR

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

18 10 5.8 10 7.5 15 11.7 20 16.4 20 17.0 25 22.3 25

16 15 8.7 15 11.3 20 15.6 25 20.5 25 21.3 30 26.7 35

14 20 11.6 20 15.0 25 19.5 30 24.6 35 29.8 40 35.6 45

12 25 14.5 25 18.8 35 27.3 40 32.8 45 38.3 50 44.5 55

10 40 23.2 40 30.0 50 39.0 55 45.1 60 51.0 70 62.3 70

8 55 31.9 65 48.8 70 54.6 70 57.4 80 68.0 90 80.1 100

6 80 46.4 95 71.3 100 78.0 100 82.0 120 102.0 125 111.3 135

4 105 60.9 125 93.8 130 101.4 135 110.7 160 136.0 170 151.3 180

3 120 69.6 145 108.8 150 117.0 155 127.1 180 153.0 195 173.6 210

2 140 81.2 170 127.5 175 136.5 180 147.6 210 178.5 225 200.3 240

1 165 95.7 195 146.3 210 163.8 210 172.2 245 208.3 265 235.9 280

0 195 113.1 230 172.5 245 191.1 245 200.9 285 242.3 305 271.5 325

00 225 130.5 265 198.8 285 222.3 285 233.7 330 280.5 355 316.0 370

000 260 150.8 310 232.5 330 257.4 330 270.6 385 327.3 410 364.9 430

0000 300 174.0 360 270.0 385 300.3 385 315.7 445 378.3 475 422.8 510

TABLE VII – B – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE OF CONDUCTORS WHEN THREE CURRENT CARRYING

CONDUCTORS ARE BUNDLED

TEMPERATURE RATING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION

CONDUCTOR

60°C

(140°F)

75°C

(167°F)

80°C

(176°F)

90°C

(194°F)

105°C

(221°F)

125°C

(257°F)

200°C

(392°F)

SIZE

(AWG)

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

OR

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

18 7.0 4.1 7.0 5.3 10.5 8.2 14.0 11.5 14.0 11.9 17.5 15.6 17.5

16 10.5 6.1 10.5 7.9 14.0 10.9 17.5 14.4 17.5 14.9 21.0 18.7 24.5

14 14.0 8.1 14.0 10.5 17.5 13.7 21.0 17.2 24.5 20.8 28.0 24.9 31.5

12 17.5 10.2 17.5 13.1 24.5 19.1 28.0 23.0 31.5 26.8 35.0 31.2 38.5

10 28.0 16.2 28.0 21.0 35.0 27.3 38.5 31.6 42.0 35.7 49.0 43.6 49.0

8 38.5 22.3 45.5 34.1 49.0 38.2 49.0 40.2 56.0 47.6 63.0 56.1 70.0

6 56.0 32.5 66.5 49.9 70.0 54.6 70.0 57.4 84.0 71.4 87.5 77.9 94.5

4 73.5 42.6 87.5 65.6 91.0 71.0 94.5 77.5 112.0 95.2 119.0 105.9 126.0

3 84.0 48.7 101.5 76.1 105.0 81.9 108.5 89.0 126.0 107.1 136.5 121.5 147.0

2 98.0 56.8 119.0 89.3 122.5 95.6 126.0 103.3 147.0 125.0 157.5 140.2 168.0

1 115.5 67.0 136.5 102.4 147.0 114.7 147.0 120.5 171.5 145.8 185.5 165.1 196.0

0 136.5 79.2 161.0 120.8 171.5 133.8 171.5 140.6 199.5 169.6 213.5 190.0 227.5

00 157.5 91.4 185.5 139.1 199.5 155.6 199.5 163.6 231.0 196.4 248.5 221.2 259.0

000 182.0 105.6 217.0 162.8 231.0 180.2 231.0 189.4 269.5 229.1 287.0 255.4 301.0

0000 210.0 121.8 252.0 189.0 269.5 210.2 269.5 221.0 311.5 264.8 332.5 295.9 357.0

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TABLE VII – C – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE OF CONDUCTORS WHEN FOUR TO SIX CURRENT

CARRYING CONDUCTORS ARE BUNDLED

TEMPERATURE RATING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION

CONDUCTOR

60°C

(140°F)

75°C

(167°F)

80°C

(176°F)

90°C

(194°F)

105°C

(221°F)

125°C

(257°F)

200°C

(392°F)

SIZE

(AWG)

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

OR

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

18 6.0 3.5 6.0 4.5 9.0 7.0 12.0 9.8 12.0 10.2 15.0 13.4 15.0

16 9.0 5.2 9.0 6.8 12.0 9.4 15.0 12.3 15.0 12.8 18.0 16.0 21.0

14 12.0 7.0 12.0 9.0 15.0 11.7 18.0 14.8 21.0 17.9 24.0 21.4 27.0

12 15.0 8.7 15.0 11.3 21.0 16.4 24.0 19.7 27.0 23.0 30.0 26.7 33.0

10 24.0 13.9 24.0 18.0 30.0 23.4 33.0 27.1 36.0 30.6 42.0 37.4 42.0

8 33.0 19.1 39.0 29.3 42.0 32.8 42.0 34.4 48.0 40.8 54.0 48.1 60.0

6 48.0 27.8 57.0 42.8 60.0 46.8 60.0 49.2 72.0 61.2 75.0 66.8 81.0

4 63.0 36.5 75.0 56.3 78.0 60.8 81.0 66.4 96.0 81.6 102.0 90.8 108.0

3 72.0 41.8 87.0 65.3 90.0 70.2 93.0 76.3 108.0 91.8 117.0 104.1 126.0

2 84.0 48.7 102.0 76.5 105.0 81.9 108.0 88.6 126.0 107.1 135.0 120.2 144.0

1 99.0 57.4 117.0 87.8 126.0 98.3 126.0 103.3 147.0 125.0 159.0 141.5 168.0

0 117.0 67.9 138.0 103.5 147.0 114.7 147.0 120.5 171.0 145.4 183.0 162.9 195.0

00 135.0 78.3 159.0 119.3 171.0 133.4 171.0 140.2 198.0 168.3 213.0 189.6 222.0

000 156.0 90.5 186.0 139.5 198.0 154.4 198.0 162.4 231.0 196.4 246.0 218.9 258.0

0000 180.0 104.4 216.0 162.0 231.0 180.2 231.0 189.4 267.0 227.0 285.0 253.7 306.0

TABLE VII – D – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE OF CONDUCTORS WHEN SEVEN TO 24 CURRENT

CARRYING CONDUCTORS ARE BUNDLED

TEMPERATURE RATING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION

CONDUCTOR

60°C

(140°F)

75°C

(167°F)

80°C

(176°F)

90°C

(194°F)

105°C

(221°F)

125°C

(257°F)

200°C

(392°F)

SIZE

(AWG)

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

OR

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

18 5.0 2.9 5.0 3.8 7.5 5.9 10.0 8.2 10.0 8.5 12.5 11.1 12.5

16 7.5 4.4 7.5 5.6 10.0 7.8 12.5 10.3 12.5 10.6 15.0 13.4 17.5

14 10.0 5.8 10.0 7.5 12.5 9.8 15.0 12.3 17.5 14.9 20.0 17.8 22.5

12 12.5 7.3 12.5 9.4 17.5 13.7 20.0 16.4 22.5 19.1 25.0 22.3 27.5

10 20.0 11.6 20.0 15.0 25.0 19.5 27.5 22.6 30.0 25.5 35.0 31.2 35.0

8 27.5 16.0 32.5 24.4 35.0 27.3 35.0 28.7 40.0 34.0 45.0 40.1 50.0

6 40.0 23.2 47.5 35.6 50.0 39.0 50.0 41.0 60.0 51.0 62.5 55.6 67.5

4 52.5 30.5 62.5 46.9 65.0 50.7 67.5 55.4 80.0 68.0 85.0 75.7 90.0

3 60.0 34.8 72.5 54.4 75.0 58.5 77.5 63.6 90.0 76.5 97.5 86.8 105.0

2 70.0 40.6 85.0 63.8 87.5 68.3 90.0 73.8 105.0 89.3 112.5 100.1 120.0

1 82.5 47.9 97.5 73.1 105.0 81.9 105.0 86.1 122.5 104.1 132.5 117.9 140.0

0 97.5 56.6 115.0 86.3 122.5 95.6 122.5 100.5 142.5 121.1 152.5 135.7 162.5

00 112.5 65.3 132.5 99.4 142.5 111.2 142.5 116.9 165.0 140.3 177.5 158.0 185.0

000 130.0 75.4 155.0 116.3 165.0 128.7 165.0 135.3 192.5 163.6 205.0 182.5 215.0

0000 150.0 87.0 180.0 135.0 192.5 150.2 192.5 157.9 222.5 189.1 237.5 211.4 255.0

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TABLE VII – E – ALLOWABLE AMPERAGE OF CONDUCTORS WHEN 25 OR MORE CURRENT CARRYING

CONDUCTORS ARE BUNDLED

TEMPERATURE RATING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION

CONDUCTOR

60°C

(140°F)

75°C

(167°F)

80°C

(176°F)

90°C

(194°F)

105°C

(221°F)

125°C

(257°F)

200°C

(392°F)

SIZE

(AWG)

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

OUTSIDE

OR

INSIDE

ENGINE

SPACES

18 4.0 2.3 4.0 3.0 6.0 4.7 8.0 6.6 8.0 6.8 10.0 8.9 10.0

16 6.0 3.5 6.0 4.5 8.0 6.2 10.0 8.2 10.0 8.5 12.0 10.7 14.0

14 8.0 4.6 8.0 6.0 10.0 7.8 12.0 9.8 14.0 11.9 16.0 14.2 18.0

12 10.0 5.8 10.0 7.5 14.0 10.9 16.0 13.1 18.0 15.3 20.0 17.8 22.0

10 16.0 9.3 16.0 12.0 20.0 15.6 22.0 18.0 24.0 20.4 28.0 24.9 28.0

8 22.0 12.8 26.0 19.5 28.0 21.8 28.0 23.0 32.0 27.2 36.0 32.0 40.0

6 32.0 18.6 38.0 28.5 40.0 31.2 40.0 32.8 48.0 40.8 50.0 44.5 54.0

4 42.0 24.4 50.0 37.5 52.0 40.6 54.0 44.3 64.0 54.4 68.0 60.5 72.0

3 48.0 27.8 58.0 43.5 60.0 46.8 62.0 50.8 72.0 61.2 78.0 69.4 84.0

2 56.0 32.5 68.0 51.0 70.0 54.6 72.0 59.0 84.0 71.4 90.0 80.1 96.0

1 66.0 38.3 78.0 58.5 84.0 65.5 84.0 68.9 98.0 83.3 106.0 94.3 112.0

0 78.0 45.2 92.0 69.0 98.0 76.4 98.0 80.4 114.0 96.9 122.0 108.6 130.0

00 90.0 52.2 106.0 79.5 114.0 88.9 114.0 93.5 132.0 112.2 142.0 126.4 148.0

000 104.0 60.3 124.0 93.0 132.0 103.0 132.0 108.2 154.0 130.9 164.0 146.0 172.0

0000 120.0 69.6 144.0 108.0 154.0 120.1 154.0 126.3 178.0 151.3 190.0 169.1 204.0

TABLE VIII – FLEXIBLE CORDS

Table VIII A

FLEXIBLE CORDS

TYPE DESCRIPTION AVAILABLE INSULATION TEMPERATURE

RATING

SO, SOW Hard Service Cord, Oil Resistant Compound 60°C (140° F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

ST, STW Hard Service Cord, Thermoplastic 60°C (140° F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

STO,

STOW,SEO,

SEOW

Hard Service Cord, Oil Resistant Thermoplastic 60°C (140° F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

SJO, SJOW Junior Hard Service Cord, Oil Resistant Compound 60°C (140°F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

SJT, SJTW Junior Hard Service Cord, Thermoplastic 60°C (140°F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

SJTO,

SJTOW

Junior Hard Service Cord, Oil Resistant Thermoplastic 60°C (140°F), 75°C (167°F) & higher

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Table VIII B (SEE E-11.16.1.1.1 AND E-11.16.1.3.4)

TYPE

DAMP

LOCATION

OIL

RESISTANT

COVER

EXTRA HARD

USAGE

HARD

USAGE

SE, SEW X X

SEO, SEOW X X X

SJ, SJW X X

SJE, SJEW X X

SJEO,

SJEOW

X X X

SJO, SJOW X X X

SJOO,

SJOOW

X X X

SJT, SJTW X X

SJTO,

SJTOW

X X X

SJTOO,

SJTOOW

X X X

SO, SOW X X X

ST, STW X X

STO, STOW X X X

STOO,

STOOW

X X X

NOTES: 1. Available in the same temperature rating as flexible cords in Table VIII A

2 167°F (75°C) dry insulation is suitable for use inside machinery spaces.

  1. 140°F (60°C) dry insulation is suitable only for use outside machinery spaces.
  2. Oil resistant cover shall be used in machinery spaces.

TABLE IX – CONDUCTORS

CONDUCTORS

TYPES

(SEE NOTE)

DESCRIPTION

AVAILABLE INSULATION TEMPERATURE

RATING

THW Moisture and Heat-Resistant, Thermoplastic 75° C (167° F)

TW Moisture-Resistant, Thermoplastic 60° C (140° F)

HWN Moisture and Heat-Resistant, Thermoplastic 75° C (167° F)

XHHW Moisture and Heat-Resistant, Cross Linked

Synthetic Polymer

90° C (194° F)

MTW Moisture, Heat and Oil Resistant, Thermoplastic 90° C (194° F)

AWM Style Nos. 1230, Moisture, Heat and Oil Resistant,

1231-1232, 1275 Thermoplastic, Thermosetting

1344-1346

105° C (221° F)

UL 1426 Boat Cable (See UL 1426 Cables for Boats)

NOTE: Some of the listed types are not commonly available in stranded construction for sizes smaller than 8 AWG.

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TABLE X – CONDUCTORS SIZED FOR 3 PERCENT DROP IN VOLTAGE

NOTE: In the event of a conflict between the voltage drop table and the ampacity table, use the larger wire size.

Length of Conductor from Source of Current to Device and Back to Source – Feet

10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

TOTAL

CURRENT

ON

CIRCUIT

IN AMPS.

12 Volts – 3% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 16 14 12 12 10 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

10 14 12 10 10 10 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2

15 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

20 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2/0

25 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0

30 10 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 3/0

40 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

50 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

60 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

70 6 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

80 6 4 2 2 1 0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

90 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

100 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 4/0

24 Volts – 3% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 18 18 16 16 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8

10 18 16 14 12 12 10 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

15 16 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2

20 14 12 10 10 10 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2

25 12 12 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

30 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

40 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2/0

50 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0

60 10 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 3/0

70 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

80 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

90 8 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

100 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

32 Volts – 3% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10 8

10 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6

15 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4

20 16 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2

25 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2

30 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 1

40 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

50 12 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0

60 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0

70 10 8 6 6 6 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0

80 10 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 3/0

90 8 6 6 6 4 2 2 2 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0

100 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0 4/0 4/0 4/0

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TABLE XI CONDUCTORS SIZES FOR 10 % VOLTAGE DROP

NOTE: In the event of a conflict between the voltage drop table and the ampacity table, use the larger wire size.

Length of Conductor from Source of Current to Device and Back to Source – Feet

10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

TOTAL

CURRENT

ON

CIRCUIT IN

AMPS

12 Volts – 10% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 14 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10

10 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 6

15 18 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6

20 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4

25 16 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2

30 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2

40 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

50 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

60 12 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0

70 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0

80 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 2/0

90 10 8 6 6 6 4 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0

100 10 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 2/0 2/0 2/0 3/0 3/0 3/0

24 Volts – 10% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 16 14 14 14 14 14 14 12

10 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 14 12 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10

15 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8

20 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 6

25 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6

30 18 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6

40 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4

50 16 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 2

60 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2

70 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

80 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

90 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1

100 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

32 Volts – 10% Drop Wire Sizes (gauge) – Based on Minimum CM Area

5 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 16 16 14 14 14 14

10 18 18 18 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 14 14 14 12 12 12 12 12 12

15 18 18 18 18 18 16 14 14 14 12 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 10

20 18 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8

25 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8

30 18 18 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6

40 18 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6

50 16 14 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4

60 16 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4

70 14 14 12 10 10 8 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2

80 14 12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2

90 14 12 10 10 10 8 6 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2

100 14 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2

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TABLE XII – CONDUCTOR CIRCULAR MIL (CM) AREA AND STRANDING

CONDUCTOR

GAUGE

MINIMUM

ACCEPTABL

E

CM AREA

AWG

MINIMUM

ACCEPTABLE

CM AREA

SAE

MINIMUM NUMBER OF STRANDS

TYPE 1* TYPE 2** TYPE 3***

18 1,620 1,537 – 16 –

16 2,580 2,336 – 19 26

14 4,110 3,702 – 19 41

12 6,530 5,833 – 19 65

10 10,380 9,343 – 19 105

8 16,510 14,810 – 19 168

6 26,240 24,538 – 37 266

4 41,740 37,360 – 49 420

2 66,360 62,450 – 127 665

1 83,690 77,790 – 127 836

0 105,600 98,980 – 127 1064

00 133,100 125,100 – 127 1323

000 167,800 158,600 – 259 1666

0000 211,600 205,500 – 418 2107

*Type 1 – Solid conductor and stranding less than that indicated under Type 2 shall not be used

**Type 2 – Conductors with at least Type 2 stranding shall be used for general purpose boat wiring.

***Type 3 – Conductors with Type 3 stranding shall be used for any wiring where frequent flexing is involved in

normal use.

NOTE: 1. Metric wire sizes may be used if of equivalent circular mil area. If the circular mil area of the metric

conductor is less than that listed, the wire ampacity shall be corrected based on the ratio of the circular mil areas.

For comparison of conductor cross sections (AWG and ISO) (See AP TABLE 2 )

  1. The circular mil area given is equal to the mathematical square of the diameter of the AWG standard

solid copper conductor measured in one thousandths of an inch.

The area in square inches = 4(1,000,000)

pi(circular mils)

The circular mil area of the stranded conductors may differ from the tabulated values and is the sum of the circular

mil areas of the wires (strands) in the conductor.

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TABLE XIII – CONDUCTOR AMPACITY – FLEXIBLE CORDS [60°C (140°F) INSULATED RATING]

AMPACITY OF INSULATED COPPER CONDUCTORS

(SEE NOTES (1) AND (2))

OUTSIDE ENGINE SPACES INSIDE ENGINE SPACES

30°C (86°F) AMBIENT 50°C (122°F) AMBIENT

CONDUCTOR NOMINAL CM 3 CURRENT 2 CURRENT 3 CURRENT 2 CURRENT

SIZE AREA CARRYING CARRYING CARRYING CARRYING

(AWG) (SEE NOTE (1)) CONDUCTORS CONDUCTORS CONDUCTORS CONDUCTORS

16 2,580 10 13 6 8

14 4,110 15 18 9 11

12 6,530 20 25 12 15

10 10,380 25 30 15 20

8 16,510 35 40 20 25

6 26,240 45 55 30 35

4 41,740 60 70 35 40

2 66,360 80 95 50 55

NOTES: 1. Current ratings are for not more than two or three current carrying conductors in a flexible cord as

indicated. Reduce the current rating to 80 percent of values shown for four to six current carrying conductors.

  1. The ampacity of shore cables shall be based on 86oF (30oC) ambient.

TABLE XIV – WIRING COLOR CODE

Color Use

Green, or green w/yellow

stripe(s)

DC grounding conductors

Black, or yellow DC negative conductors

Red DC positive conductors

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TABLE XV – ENGINE AND ACCESSORY WIRING COLOR CODE

COLOR ITEM USE

Yellow w/Red Stripe (YR) Starting Circuit Starting switch to solenoid

Brown/Yellow Stripe (BY) or

Yellow (Y) – see note

Bilge Blowers Fuse or switch to blowers

Dark Gray (Gy) Navigation Lights

Tachometer

Fuse or switch to lights

Tachometer sender to gauge

Brown (Br) Generator Armature Generator armature to regulator

Alternator Charge Light

Pumps

Generator

Terminal/alternator

Auxiliary terminal to light to regulator

Fuse or switch to pumps

Orange (O) Accessory Feed Ammeter to alternator or generator output and

accessory fuses or switches.

Distribution panel to accessory switch

Purple (Pu) Ignition Ignition switch to coil and electrical instruments.

Instrument Feed Distribution panel to electric instruments

Dark Blue Cabin and Instrument Lights Fuse or switch to lights

Light Blue (Lt Bl) Oil Pressure Oil pressure sender to gauge

Tan Water Temperature Water temperature sender to gauge

Pink (Pk) Fuel Gauge Fuel gauge sender to gauge

Green/Stripe (G/x)

(Except G/Y)

Tilt down and/or Trim in Tilt and/or trim circuits

Blue/Stripe (Bl/x) Tilt up and/or Trim out Tilt and/or trim circuits

NOTE: If yellow is used for DC negative, blower must be brown with yellow stripe.

TABLE XVI – TENSILE TEST VALUES FOR CONNECTIONS

CONDUCTOR SIZE TENSILE FORCE CONDUCTOR SIZE TENSILE FORCE

GAUGE POUNDS NEWTONS GAUGE POUNDS NEWTONS

18 10 44 4 70 311

16 15 66 3 80 355

14 30 133 2 90 400

12 35 155 1 100 444

10 40 177 0 125 556

8 45 200 00 150 667

6 50 222 000 175 778

5 60 266 0000 225 1000

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AP TABLE 1 – CONDUCTORS

AWG

INSULATION

TYPE

NOMINAL

WALL

THICKNESS

(MILS)

MAXIMUM

OPERATING

TEMP.

DRY (°C)

MAXIMUM

OPERATING

TEMP.

WET (°C)

BREAK DOWN

VOLTAGE

(V)

OIL

RESISTANT

TEMP.

(°C)

COMMENTS

14-10 THW 45 75 75 600 Thermoplastic

8-2 THW 60

1-4/0 THW 80

14-10 TW 30 75 60 600 Thermoplastic

8 TW 45

14-12 THWN 19 105 75 600 60 PVC/Nylon

10 THWN 20

14-12 XHHW 30 90 75 600 X-linked

10

8-2 45

1-4/0 55

18-10 MTW 45 90 60 600 Heavy Wall

PVC

8 MTW 45

6 MTW 60

18-8 TW 30 90 60 600 Light Wall

PVC

18-10 AWM Style

#1230 PVC

30 105 60 600 60

18-8 AWM Style

#1231 PVC

45 105 60 600 60

8-2 AWM Style

#1232 PVC

60 105 60 600 60

1-4/0 AWM Style

#1232 PVC

80 105 60 600 60

18-10 AWM Style

#1275 PVC

60 105 60 600 60

18-10 AWM Style

#1345 PVC

30 105 75 600 60

8-2 AWM Style

#1346 PVC

60 105 75 600 60

18-10 UL 1426 Boat

Cable

30 105 75 600 60

8 Boat Cable 45 105 75 600 60

6-2 Boat Cable 60 105 75 600 60

1-4/0 Boat Cable 80 105 75 600 60

NOTES: 1. AWM must be accompanied by a style number.

  1. AWM style 1015 is not tested for moisture.
  2. Some of the listed types are not commonly available in standard construction for sizes smaller than 8

AWG. However, these types are acceptable if obtainable.

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AP TABLE 2 – COMPARISON OF CONDUCTOR CROSS –SECTION

AWG (Ga.)

AWG

ISO

mm²

Ampacity

(105°C Insulation)

mm²

Ampacity

(105°C Insulation)

18 0.82 20 0.75 16

1.0 20

16 1.31 25 1.5 25

14 2.08 35 2.5 35

12 3.31 45 4.0 45

10 5.26 60 6.0 60

8 8.39 80 10.0 90

6 13.3 120 16.0 130

4 21.2 160

3 26.6 180 25.0 170

2 33.6 210 35.0 210

1 42.4 245

0 53.5 285 50.0 270

2/0 67.7 330 70.0 330

3/0 85.2 385 95.0 390

4/0 107 445

250 kcm 127 500 120 450

300 kcm 152 550 150 475

NOTES: 1. Ampacity for ISO sizes is from ISO/FDIS 10133 “Electrical Systems-Extra-low-voltage D.C.

Installations” dated February 2, 1999.

  1. Ampacity of AWG is from E-11 TABLE VII – A and NEC for 221°F (105°C) insulation no more than two conductors bundled in air at 70oF (21oC).

* * * * *

ABYC technical board rules provide that all reports, including standards and technical information reports, are advisory only. Their use is entirely voluntary. They are believed to represent, as of the date of publication, the consensus of

knowledgeable persons, currently active in the field of small craft, on performance objectives that contribute to small boat safety.

The American Boat & Yacht Council assumes no responsibility whatsoever for the use of, or failure to use, standards

or technical information reports promulgated by it, their adaptation to any processes of a user, or any consequences

flowing therefrom..

Prospective users of the standards and technical information reports are responsible for protecting themselves against liability for infringement of patents.

The American Boat & Yacht Council standards are guides to achieving a specific level of design or performance, and are not intended to preclude attainment of desired results by other means.